2016-6 ENG

General info

Number 6


  1. Title.
  2. Content.
  3. Andriievska Viktoriia. Linguistic and Cognitive Means of Expression of the National System Education - C. 5-9.

    Problems in the French Modern Slam. The article deals with the linguistic and cognitive research of the French modern slam according to the semantic and cognitive maxims in analyzing the fiction text. The material for the linguistic research is represented by the composition “Éducation nationale” interpreted by Grand Corps Malade who is one of the most famous representatives of slam in France. The most characterizing features of this music genre are its engagement and rendering the most critical social and politic problems by means of the brilliant author’s metaphors. The aim of our investigation is to find out the linguistic and cognitive mechanisms namely the key cognitive metaphors around which the main sense of the song text is developing. Due to the results of the research, the mainstream metaphor in the text is SYSTEM OF EDUCATION AS GAME IN CHESS which delimits the bureaucrats of the simple employees of the Education calling them by the names of the chess pieces: the bureaucrats are kings and rooks, the teachers are pawns. The idea of the depression of the National system of Education in France and the thesis of the decline in the success level of the students are expressed by the metaphor equation SUCCESS IS MYSTERY, and the future of the pupil from a provincial region is rendering by means of the metaphor structure FUTURE IS DEADLOCK. The grammatical negative structures also add to the song text the cognitive component and bring the meaning of absence or lack of something.
    Key words: linguistic and cognitive approach, cognitive metaphor, author’s picture of the world, French modern slam, national education.
    1. Yemets, Oleksandr. 2001. “Rol Kontseptualnykh Metafor u Stvorenni Avtorskoi Kartyny Svitu”. Studia Methodologica, 9: 45–49. file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/ Yemets.pdf.
    2. Kahanovska, O. M. 2007. “Linhvokohnityvnyi Aspect Vtilennia Tekstovykh Kontseptiv u Frantsuzkii ta Hudozhnii Prozi”. Naukovyi Chasopys NPU Imeni M. P. Drahomanova, 9: 50–57.
    3. Kibrik, A., and Kobzeva, I., and Sekerina, I., ed. Sovremennaia Amerikanskaia Lingvistika: Fundamentalnyie Tendentsyi. Moskva: Editorial URSS, 2002.
    4. Dictionnaire de français Larousse. http://www.larousse.fr/dictionnaires/francais/roi/69725?q=roi#68971. 5. 2017. “Paroles Education Nationale par Grand Corps Malade”. Paroles.net. http://www.paroles.net/grandcorps-malade/paroles-education-nationale.

  4. Biskub I. Language in applied linguistics: a historical perspective - C. 10-16.
    The article presents an outline of the main tendencies in the formation of applied linguistics from the historical perspective. Modern applied linguistics as an academic discipline offers effective mechanisms of integrating various branches of theoretical linguistics due to two main postulates all modern schools of linguistics agree on, i.e. non-material nature of language and the necessity to implement information technologies into linguistic research. The main achievements of modern theoretical linguistics are viewed through their ability to be used for the problem solving in the real world. Thus, we suggest that modern applied theory of language may consider language from three different points of view. It may be interested in (1) how the language sounds or looks (language as a state), (2) how it works (language as an activity), or (3) how it develops (language as change). If it is interested in how the language sounds or looks, the theory will include something on language considered as a fixed state – either as a state dependent on what people think and do, or as one which is independent of this. Dependently, language may be considered as human thought or as human behaviour. Language may be viewed as an independent state, either as structure, or as a system of communication. The view of language as an activity is concerned with the way language operates or is operated by man. From this point of view, language may be considered as an activity of the mind, or an activity of the brain. Language may also be regarded as something which is continually changing in time, or in space. In this respect it’s possible to single out such branches of applied linguistics as speech acquisition, area linguistics, and contrastive linguistics. The suggested conceptual scheme opens new perspectives for developments of modern applied linguistics as well as new mechanisms of the verification of its research results.
    Key words: applied linguistics, language, state, activity, change.
    1. Bartoli, Matteo. 1945. Saggi di linquistica spaziale. Torino: Bona. 2. Bloomfield, Leonard. 1933. Language. London: George Allen and Unwin.
    3. Brunot, Ferdinand. 1922. La pensée et la langue: mèthode, principes et plan d’une théorie nouvelle du langage appliquée au français. Paris: Masson.
    4. Chomsky, Noam. 1965. Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    5. Guillaume, Gustave. 1963. Langage et science du langage. Paris: Nizet.
    6. Hjelmslev, Louis, and Uldall, Hans Jørgen. 1957. Outline of Glossematics. A study in the Methodology of the Humanities with Special Reference to Linguistics. Copenhagen: Nordisk Sprog og Kulturforlag.
    7. Jakobson, Roman, and Halle, Morris. 1956. Fundamentals of Language. The Hague: Mouton.
    8. Meredith, G. Patrick. 1960. “The Communication of Scientific Concepts and Models of Semantic Mechanisms”. The advancement of Science, 18: 110–117.
    9. Ogden, C. K., and Richards, I. A. 1949. The Meaning of Meaning. A Study of the Influence of Language Upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    10. Penfield, W. C., and Roberts, L. 1959. Speech and Brain Mechanisms. Princeton: Princeton U. P.
    11. Pike, Kenneth L. 1960. Language in Relation to a Unified Theory of the Structure of Human Behaviour: in 3 vols. Glendale (California, USA): Summer Institute of Linguistics.
    12. Shannon, Claude E., and Weaver, Warren. 1949. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana: Illinois U. P.
    13. Skinner, B. F. Verbal Behaviour / B. F. Skinner. – NY : Appleton, 1957. – P. 130–146.
    14.Wiener, Norbert. 1948. Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. New York: Wiley.
    15. Zipf, George Kingsley. Human Behaviour and the Principle of Least Effort: An Introduction to Human Ecology. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley.

  5. Bondar T., Halytska O. Peculiarities of Verbalization of the Concept REFUGEE in Political Discourse. - C. 17-23.
    The article deals with verbalizers of the concept REFUGEE and peculiarities of its content in political discourse. Analysis of dictionary definitions, synonymous rows and definitions of the term “refugee” in the UN official documents shows that lexemes refugee, asylum seeker and displaced person are the most frequent language representatives of the concept REFUGEE. The main conceptual feature of the concept is ‘to be forced to flee his or her country and seek sanctuary in another country’. However, the concept REFUGEE acquires new conceptual features because of the development of world events. This fact is directly related to the crisis of refugees that forced governments to redefine already existent definitions of the term “refugee”. In order to determine language means that verbalize the concept REFUGEE in political discourse speeches of politicians were analyzed. The speeches were given by native speakers (Barack Obama, Theresa Mary May, Catherine Branson) as well as by non-native speakers of English (Grzegorz Schetyna, Morgan Johansson, António Guterres, Volker Türk). These politicians used both key lexemes-verbalizers of the concept (refugee, asylum seeker, displaced person) and free word combinations (vulnerable people who have come to seek protection, people in need of protection, people in need of shelter, people in need) to represent the concept in their speeches. Native speakers mainly express neutral or positive attitude toward refugees. Non-native speakers sometimes use verbalizers that have negative connotations.
    Key words: concept, conceptual feature, verbalizer, nominative field, political discourse.
    1. Popova, Zinaida, and Sternin, Iosif. 2007. Kognitivnaia Lingvistika. Moskva: ACT “Vostok–Zapad”.
    2. Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 2008. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/refugee.
    3. UNHCR. The UN Refugee Agency. “Cartagena declaration on refugees”. Accessed August 1, 2017. http://www.unhcr.org/about-us/background/45dc19084/cartagena-declaration-refugees-adopted-colloquium-internationalprotection.html.
    4. UNHCR. The UN Refugee Agency. “Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees.” Accessed August 1, 2017. http://www.unhcr.org/3b66c2aa10.
    5. Dictionary.com Unabridged. 2017. Random House, Inc. Accessed August 5, 2017. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/refugee.
    6. Encyclopedia Britannica. “Refugee.” Accessed August 5, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/topic/refugee.
    7. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. 2005. Edinburgh : Longman.
    8. UNHCR. The UN Refugee Agency. “OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Pproblems in Africa.” Accessed August 7, 2017. http://www.unhcr.org/about-us/background/45dc1a682/oau-convention-governingspecific-aspects-refugee-problems-africa-adopted.html.
    9. “Open Briefing to United Nations Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee”. Accessed August 7, 2017. http://www.unhcr.org/admin/dipstatements/58e35b317/open-briefing-united-nations-security-council-counter-terrorismcommittee.html.
    10. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 2010. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    11. Oxford Learner’s Thesaurus. A Dictionary of Synonyms. 2008. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    12. GOV.UK. “PM speech at Leaders Summit on Refugees: 20 September 2016”. Accessed August 7, 2017. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pm-speech-at-leaders-summit-on-refugees-20-september-2016.
    13. Australian Human Rights Commission. “President speech: Human Rights, Refugees and Asylum Seekers”. Accessed August 6, 2017. https://www.humanrights.gov.au /news/speeches/president-speech-human-rights-refugees-andasylum-seekers.
    14. “Remarks by President Obama at Leaders Summit on Refugees”. Accessed August 8, 2017. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/09/20/remarks-president-obama-leaders-summit-refugees.
    15. Government offices of Sweden. “Speech by Morgan Johansson at UNHCR High-level meeting on global responsibility sharing through pathways for admission of Syrian refugees.” Accessed August 4, 2017. http://www.government.se/speeches/2016/03/speech-by-morgan-johansson-atunhcr-high-level-meeting-on-globalresponsibility-sharing-through-pathways-for-admission-of-syrian-refugees/.
    16. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Poland. “Speech by Polish Foreign Minister on refugee crisis”. Accessed August 2, 2017. http://www.msz.gov.pl/en/ministry/polish_diplomacy_archive/former_ministers/ remarks_mgs/speech_by_polish_foreign_minister_on_the_refugee_crisis;jsessionid=24E9E089164F28DF595E725FA63 D09BC.cmsap5p.
    17. Guterres, António. 2015. “Briefing on the Humanitarian Situation in Syria”. Paper presented at United Nations Security Council (7592nd Meeting), New York, 21 December 2015. http://www.unhcr.org/admin/hcspeeches/567861459/ united-nations-security-council-7592nd-meeting-briefing-humanitarian-situation.html.
    18. USA for UNHCR. “What is a refugee? Definition and Meaning”. Accessed August 7, 2017. http://www.unrefugees.org/what-is-a-refugee/

  6. Voloshynovych N. Translation Problems of Fashion Industry Terminology C. 24-27.
    The article considers the vocabulary of fashion industry as an independent segment in the scientific world image of the native speakers; therefore, it is interesting not only for linguists, but also for non-specialists in the philological sphere. It forms a branched terminology of the design of clothing and fashion, common literary vocabulary and special terms that refer to the concepts of fashion and design of clothing, as well as industrial and creative activities. The article examines the most common methods and techniques for the translation of terms, the main of which are: translation with a lexical equivalent and a non-equivalent translation. Among the main translation techniques of the non-equivalent vocabulary are the following: transcription, transliteration, calque and descriptive translation. A separate part of the article deals with the methods for translation of neologisms, author’s terms, anthroponyms and abbreviations.
    Key words: term, clothing design, fashion, translation, equivalent, nonequivalent vocabulary, transliteration, transcription, calque translation, descriptive translation.
    1. Karaban, Viacheslav. 2004. Pereklad Anhliiskoi Naukovoi i Tekhnichnoi Literatury. Hramatychni Trudnoshchi, Leksychni, Terminolohichni ta Zhanrovo-Stylistychni Problemy. Vinnytsia: Nova Knyha.
    2. Kyiak, Taras. 2007. “Funktsii ta Pereklad Terminiv u Fakhovykh Tekstakh”. Visnyk Zhytomyrskoho Derzhavnoho Universytetu, 32: 104–108.
    3. Kovalenko, Hanna. 2005. “Anhliiska Leksyka Mody 20–21 Stolit”. PhD diss., Kyivskyi Natsionalnyi Universytet Imeni Tarasa Shevchenka.
    4. Kosenko, Oleksandr. 2012. “Neolohizmy u Feshn-Industrii”. Spetsproekt: Analiz Naukovykh Doslidzhen. Dnipropetrovsk, 4: 71–73.
    5. Rudenko, Maryna. 2014. “Vyiavlennia Osoblyvostei Perekladu Terminolohii ta Ukladannia Tematychnoho Slovnyka yak Rezultat Proektnoi Metodyky Navchannia Perekladu”. Visnyk Kharkivskoho Natsionalnoho Universytetu, 21: 152–159.
    6. Superanskaia, Aleksandra, and Podolskaia, Nataliia, and Vasilieva, Nataliia. 1989. Obshchaia Terminologiia: Voprosy Teorii. Moskva: Nauka.

  7. Vorobiova T. Interplay of translation freedom, creativity and fidelity in translating process as a step up to the accuracy of translation product. - C. 28-33.
    The article explores problems of the creative practice in translation work. The emphasis is laid on modern issues in the domain of psycholinguistics and theory of translation. The author substantiates the essence of the key concepts and notions concerning the subject of the research: creativity, components of creativity, creativity and freedom in translation, translation fidelity, transcreation, neologism and the concept of re-creation in translation. The subtleties of translation freedom and creativity are considered on the case-study of neologisms translation peculiarities. The research findings give grounds to conclude that translation of neologisms, in general, and author’s neologisms, in particular, involves a variety of creative strategies to balance the derivative against the creative. Freedom in the choice of TL linguistic and stylistic means facilitates creativity in translation and helps a translator to attain accuracy in conveying the SL concepts into the TL ones.
    Key words: creativity, creative translation, freedom in translation, transcreation, neologism, author’s neologisms, re-creation in translation.
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    3. Bono, Edward de. 1970. Lateral Thinking: A Textbook of Creativity. London: Ward Lock Educational.
    4. Gui, Gianyuan. 1995. “Das Wesen des Übersetzens ist kreativ”. Babel, 41 (3): 129–139.
    5. Guilford, J. P. 1967. The Nature of Human Intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
    6. Levý, Jirí. 1967. “Translation as a decision process”. To Honour of Roman Jacobson, 2: 1171–1182. The
    Hague: Mouton.
    7. Neubert, Albrecht. 1997. Postulates for a Theory of Translatio. Danks & al., 1–24.
    8. Newmark, P. 1991. About Translation. Clevedon / Philadelphia / Adelaide: Multilingual Mattres.
    9. Newmark, P. 1988. Approaches to Translation. London: Prentice Hall.
    10. Nida, Eugene A. 1996. “Translation: Possible and Impossible”. Translation Perspectives, 9: 7–23.
    11. Niska, Helge & Jorunn, Fröili. 1992. “Tolkordlistor på invandrarspråk”. In Nordiske studier i leksikografi. Rapport fra Konferanse om leksikografi i Norden 28–31 mai 1991, ed. by Ruth Fjeld. Oslo: Nordisk Forening for Leksikografi / Nordisk sprеkrеd.
    12. Niska, Helge. 1997. “Text-linguistic models for the study of simultaneous interpretation”. 32nd International Colloquium on Linguistics (September 17–19, 1997). Kassel, Germany: Lang Verlag.
    13. Niska, Helge. 1998. “The interpreter as language planner”. Translation and Interpreting – a Meeting between Languages and Culture: Seminar paper 9 October, 1998. Stockholm University.
    14. Pattison, A. 2007. Painting with words. Perspectives on Creative Writing and Translation Studies. London: Continuum.
    15. Pauline, D. 2016. “Transcreation vs translation”. Cultures Connection. www.culturesconnection.com/
    16. Rendall, Steven. 1997. “The Translator’s Task, Walter Benjamin (Translation)”. TTR: traduction, terminologie, redaction, 10 (2): 151–165.
    17. Rey, Alain. 1995. Essays on Terminology. Translated and edited by Juan C. Sager. Introduction by Bruno de Bessé. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
    18. Rogers, Carl R. 1954. “Toward a Theory of Creativity”. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 11 (4): 249–260.
    19. Sager, Juan C. 1994. Language Engineering and Translation: Consequences of Automation. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
    20. Wallas, Graham. 1976. “Stages in the Creative Process”. In The Creativity Question, edited by Albert
    Rothenburg and Care R. Houdman, 69–73. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
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  8. Honchar K., Panchenko V. Nonverbal Means of Expressing Envy in Modern English Discourse.- C. 33-38.
    This article is devoted to the analysis of nonverbal means of communication, which express the meaning of envy in the modern English discourse. It is established that extralinguistic components are the main markers of envy in speech, since verbal realization of the studied meaning is not frequent and threatens harmonious communication. The main nonverbal means that denote envy are singled out: ocular, paralinguistic and kinesic. The analysis of the actual material allows us to state that the glance plays a significant role in the realization of envy. It is proved that extralinguistic means of envy can be used independently, or can accompany verbal actualization of the studied meaning. It is discovered that nonverbal components can precede the verbal expression of envy, or be in the ‘inter’ and ‘post’ positions in relation to the utterance. Extralinguistic components of envy that are in the ‘inter’ and ‘post’ positions to the verbal expression perform the function of supplementing or imitating the content of a spoken message. In the ‘pre’ position to the verbal expression, the nonverbal component fulfills an additional function of predicting the information of a verbal message.
    Key words: nonverbal means of communication, ocular means, paralinguistic components, kinesic means, envy, verbal nomination.
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    Spilkuvannia”. Aktualni Problemy Ukrainskoi Linhvistyky: Teoriia i Praktyka, 68–71. Kyiv: KNU.
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  9. Danylchuk A. E-participation in ukraine as a new model of citizen–government communication- C. 39-45.
    The paper presents a general theoretical overview of the new norms and procedures of e-petitioning in Ukraine. E-petitioning is viewed as a new form of direct and effective political communication and e-participation that marks country’s democratic advances. The article presents a short overview of terms “e-participation”, “e-democracy” and “e-petition” followed by a brief history of petitioning and its e-modification after the worldwide growth of informational and communication technologies. Democracy and communication rights are seen as interdependent, they promote transparency, effectiveness and accountability of governmental organs. We define e-petition as the most standardized, lawful and popular form of e-participation present in Ukraine. The suggested analysis of the e-petitioning in Ukraine provides the information on the norms and restrictions of this model of government–citizen communication. E-petitioning can also be viewed as a new type of media discourse. We believe that new linguistic and IT skills must be developed to fulfil the demands of e-participation growth.
    Key words: e-democracy, e-participation, e-petitioning, informational and communication technologies, political discourse.
    1. 2016. Elektronni Petytsii: Ofitsiine Internet-Predstavnytstvo Prezydenta Ukrainy.


    2.Zakirova, S. 2016. “Elecronic Petitions in Ukraine: System Formation and Operation Mechanism”. Social Communications Research Center. http://nbuviap.gov.ua/index.php?option= com_content&view=article&id=1576:elektronni-petitsiji-v-ukrajini-stanovlennya-sistemi-ta-mekhanizm-diji&catid=8&Itemid=350.
    3.Reshota, V. V. 2015. “Elektronna Petytsiia yak Novyi Instrument Zvernennia Hromadian do Orhaniv Publichnoi Administratsii”. Naukovyi Visnyk Humanistychnoho Universytetu. Seriia “Yurysprudentsiia”, 15 (1): 91–94. http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Nvmgu_jur_2015_15(1)__26.
    4.Biskub, Iryna. 2016. “Electronic Petition as a New Type of Media Discourse”. In Scientific Journal of the Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, 77–85. Lutsk.
    5. Brundidge, Jennifer. 2006. “The contribution of the Internet to the heterogeneity of political discussion networks: Does the medium matter?” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association. Dresden, Germany: Dresden International Congress Centre.
    6.Gramberger, Marc. 2001. Citizens as Partners: OECD Handbook on Information, Consultation and Public Participation in Policy-Making. Paris: OECD Publishing. http://www.oecd.org/gov/digital-government/2536857.pdf
    7.Freeman, J., and Quirke, S. 2013. “Understanding E-Democracy: Government-led Initiatives for Democratic Reform”. еJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government, 5 (2): 141–154.
    8.Holt, Richard. 2004. Dialogue on the Internet: Language, civic identity, and computer–mediated communication. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
    9. Hoorens, S., and Cremonini, L., and Bearne, S., et al. 2001. eGovernment, eGovernance and eDemocracy.
    JANUS. Final Glossary of terms and definitions, 39–44. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9973/
    10. Kitchener, Kelin, and Kushin, Matthew J. 2009. “Getting Political on Social Network Sites: Exploring
    Political Discourse on Facebook”. First Monday, 14 (11). http://firstmonday.org/ article/view/2645/2350.
    11. Lindern, Ralf, and Riehm, Ulrich. 2009. “Electronic Petitions and Institutional Modernization. International Parliamentary E-Petition Systems in Comparative Perspective”. Jedem, 1 (1). http://jedem.org/index.php/jedem/article/view/3
    12. Lironi, Eliza. 2016. “Potential And Challenges Of E-Participation In The European Union”. Policy Department C: Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs. European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/ committees/en/supporting-analyses-search.html.
    13. 2010. Public Petitions. House of Commons Information Office. London. https://www.parliament.uk/ documents/commons-information-office/P07.pdf
    14. UN E-Government Knowledge DataBase. 2014. “United Nations E-Government Survey 2014: E-Government for the Future We Want”. New York. https://publicadministration.un.org/ egovkb/Portals/egovkb/Documents/un/2014-Survey/EGov_Complete_Survey-2014.pdf.

  10. Danyliuk N. Esperanto as Successful Project of an International Planned Language: 130 Years of Functioning. - C. 45-52.

    The article is devoted to the international year of Ludwig Zamenhof, creator of Esperanto. The article deals with the Esperanto studies as a special branch of interlinguistics, with the biggest schools of esperantology of the 70s of the 20th–21st centuries: Moscow, Tartu and Budapest, and their famous representatives. Two ways of solving a problem of an international communication have been pointed out: the usage of ethnic languages and creation of planned languages of a priori and a posteriori types. The best known projects of international planned languages have been presented in the historical aspect starting with Antiquity and till present. Peculiar features of the phonetic, lexical and grammatical systems of Esperanto have been described and analyzed in the context of Esperanto being the most successful project of a planned language used in communication. The history of appearance and development of the Esperanto-movement in the world has been traced, international organizations, dealing with finding the solutions to the problems of verbal communication, have been named. A special attention has been paid to such topics as the achievements in the fields of studying and applying Esperanto in Ukraine, scientific and scientific-educational literature, translations of the texts of Ukrainian classical literature and folklore, scientific conferences, centers of Esperanto, special courses in Esperanto at the Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, and Ukrainian organizations of Esperanto speakers.

    Key words: an international language, a planned language, an artificial language, a project of an international language, language planning, interlinguistics, esperantology, Esperanto.

    1. Danyliuk, Nina. 2000. Prohrama Kursu Mizhnarodnoi Movu Esperanto dlia Uchniv Starshykh Klasiv Serednikh Zahalnoosvitnikh Shkil, Himnazii, Litseiv (za Vyborom). Kyiv.
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    Interlinhvistyky ta Linhvokulturolohii”. Lutsk.
    3. Yermolenko, Svitlana, ed. 2001. Ukraikska Mova: Korotkyi Tlumachnyi Slovnyk Linhvistychnykh Terminiv. Kyiv: Lybid.
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    5. Korolevich, Aleksandr. 1989. Kniga ob Esperanto. Kiev: Naukova Dumka.
    6. Tkachenko, Orest. 1987. “100 Rokiv Esperanto: Pidsumky i Perspektyvy”. Movoznavstvo, 4: 3–10.
    7. Rusanivskyi V. M., ed. Ukrainska Mova: Entsyklopediia. 2004. 2-e vyd. Kyiv: Ukrainska Entsyklopediia imeni M. P. Bazhana.
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  11. Kalishchuk D. The Use of Information Technologies for Linguistic Text Analysis.- C. 59-52.
    In the article the notion of conceptual style as an object of linguistic analysis has been defined; two main conceptual styles – the analytic and the relational ones – as well as the parameters they differ in have been described. It has been proved that the conceptual style of George Bush the Jr. is analytical, and the style of Barrack Obama is relational. The options of Textanz software, which has been used for content-analysis, have been analysed: Wordforms option provides figures concerning different parts of speech; PhraseFrequency option gives a list of the most frequently used phrases and word-combinations together with the number of their use in the discourse; Concordance option allows to make a list of every separate lexeme and their context.
    The content-analysis method has been used to analyse lingual, socio-lingual and psycho-lingual parameters and markers of conceptual styles, as well as the peculiarities of verbalization of political discourse basic concepts and the language means of suggestion and manipulation tactics, in particular, the parameter “dependent on their families / reluctant to be dependent on their families” and the means of realization of the “Transfer” tactics have been analysed.
    Key words: conceptual style, analytical style, relational style, content-analysis, Textanz software.
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  12. Kovalova K. Structure of the Communicative Competence of Future Agrarian Engineers. - C. 59-64.
    The article highlights the structure of the communicative competence of future agrarian engineers. It consisits of conative, gnostic, motivational-emotional and reflexive components. Conative component involves mastering of the student by communicative skills that make it possible to establish contact with the interlocutor. The gnostic component is aimed at forming of theoretical knowledge about the essence, structure, form, means, functions, types and features of communication. The motivational-emotional component includes motives, needs and goals and this component develops the ability of a student to communicate. The reflexive component is aimed at creating of the ability to work analytically, understand the importance and peculiarities of communicative competence for self-improvement and effective professional activity.
    Key words: structure, component, conative, gnostic, motivational-emotional, reflexive, professional activity, communicative competence, agrarian engineer.
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  13. Koliada E., Botvinko-Botiuk O. An ESP Course as a Constituent Part of Professional Training of the Future Philologists. - C. 65-70.
    An ESP (English for Specific Purposes) Course meets students’ specific needs. It comprises efficient, intensive and scientifically grounded subject oriented on the development of professional communicative competence of students. The master’s degree programme aims at equipping students with deep theoretical professional knowledge and developing the necessary skills and competences. Considerable attention is devoted to academic communication skills in English, critical thinking, academic speaking, listening, reading and writing skills, translation and/ or interpretation skills as well as effective and efficient research skills. Activities include formal presentations, discussions, reports on research, etc. To be successful, students must learn how to communicate effectively in professional sphere of life. It is obvious that students, language learners, cannot achieve communicative competence without the knowledge and awareness of the functions of non-verbal communication which is an essential part of communicative situations. However, it should be taken into account that non-verbal communication is different from one culture to another.
    Key words: English for Specific Purposes (ESP), professional communicative competence, language of science, scientific style, speech culture.
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  14. Kondruk A. The Theoretical Background of the Hypocrisy Actualization in the English Fiction Discourse.- C. 71-75.
    The article outlines the concepts of objective truth, subjective truth and their antipodes. The logical postulates of truth are indicated. Under the truth one understands the moral ideal, justice; true knowledge that reflects the reality correctly. It serves as the necessary link in the system of higher values which form the spiritual basis of sociality and humanity. Deception is the means of protection and realization of the interests of individuals, groups, classes, peoples and states. Deception is a conscious desire to create a false idea of the subject of discussion, and is also a form of a hidden manipulation. The deception has been analyzed as an action. Guile is characterized as a complex method of deception. Hypocrisy is determined as a negative moral quality that hides insincerity.
    Key words: objective truth, subjective truth, deception, hypocrisy, manipulation, guile, influence.
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  15. Krapivnyk H. The image of the enemy in d. Trump’s public speeches. - C. 77-84.
    The paper discusses the repertoire of the language representation of the enemy image in the public speeches by US President D. Trump. This image is mythological and facilitates setting clear evaluative emphases by politicians. The analyzed texts confirmed that any public speech is targeted at a specific audience and a specific social-cultural context, which determine the choice of the enemy or enemies that will be included in the text. It was shown that the political speaker normally assumes a positive role while communicating with the audience. The essential invariant and variable features of the image of the enemy were identified. It was indicated that in the presidential speeches the image of the enemy is always opposed to that of the friend, as well as the enemy’s victim. From the semantic standpoint, the image of the enemy includes a number of characteristics. The enemy may be home or foreign, personalized or generalized, historical or present, implicit or explicit, political, economic or mixed. In addition, the typical actions performed by the enemy were singled out and considered.
    Key words: image of enemy, image of ally, public speech, image of victim, audience, social-cultural context.
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  16. Kuchyk H. The Texts of Statutory Documents of International Organizations in the Classifications System of the Texts- C. 85-91.
    The article deals with different approaches to the selection of the texts of statutory documents of international organizations are analyzed. The main attention is paid to the typology of texts of statutory documents of international organizations in the classifications system of the texts. The decisive feature of the texts of statutory documents of international organizations is established, namely, their functional purpose, that is, use in the process of political activity at the international arena. This type of text combines information and regulatory features, characterized by context coloring. It is substantiated that the political text is not only as a linguistic unit, but also takes into account its connection with the epoch, historical situation. At first glance, the texts of statutory documents of international organizations belong to the legal type of texts. However, taking into consideration the political context of the process of creating international organizations as political institutions of multilateral cooperation, we consider the texts of statutory documents of international organizations as the political type of texts. This accessory is due to the context of the consideration of this problem. It is stated that the analysis of texts of statutory documents of international organizations is characterized by polydisciplinarity with the use of means of different branches of knowledge
    Key words: statutory document, typology, political text, information, functionality.
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  17. Spoiler
    In this article the comparative analysis of human language and animals’ quasilanguage is carried out. The mentioned work was conducted in the general theoretical and empirical vectors. The first part reflects the search of fundamental principal differences between the described phenomena by means of referring to the scientific works of the famous linguists, psychologists and psycholinguists. The second part of the research presents the practical examining of some ideas, stated in the theoretical chapter: the search of some correlations between the human lingual knowledge with their self-conscience and creative abilities. Finally, in the group of respondents several correlations between the level of lingual competence and human ability to form and combine different images or verbal constructions were found. Though, the described tendency displays it’s presence not in all explored vectors.
    Key words: cognitive process, “quasilanguage”, full-value language, conscience, sensual reality-reflection,secondary reality, creativity.
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  18. Leshchenko H. Thematic Structure of Narrative: Cognitive Dimension.- C. 95-99.
    The article centres on the analysis of thematic narrative structure, which is conceptualized as a mental model, a schema or a structure, construing by the addressee within the cognitive process of text comprehension. The act of narration is identified as the activity based on the conceptualization of the hierarchical structure of the story narrated. Special attention is given to the analysis of the existing thematic models which are focused on the theme as a generic cognitive structure, activated by the actions in fictional world. Modern narrative theories take into account the definite thematic dominants forming its general thematic structure and influencing the dynamics of the narrative events and the possible character of final resolution. The research of the content aspects of the narrative structure should by accompanied by the analysis of its formal aspects, facilitating the constructing of the universal narrative model. The structural principles of such a model ought to correlate with general criteria of narrativity as well as generic constraints of the narrative. Besides, while model constructing the reader`s factor should also be involved as the narrative configuration is actually defined by the reader`s strategies of rocessing and text comprehension.
    Key words: narrative structure, theme, thematic model, cognitive, actant, situational model.
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  19. Lynnyk Y. Structural and Functional Peculiarities of BBC LEARNING ENGLISH – an Online Resource for Learning English. – C. 99-106.
    In the article the structure and functions of the BBCLearningEnglish, an online resource for learning English, have been analysed. The author analyses the content of each chapter of the resource and pays attention to the modern and interesting didactic solutions and methodological studies, which may be used by teachers as well as by students. It has been defined that BCLearningEnglish, an online resource for learning English, comprises audio and video files, online services offer files to download, there are lexical and grammatical exercises and tests, all the tasks are organised according to the level of students knowledge, the services improve students knowledge of the country, the language of which they study, and its culture, online resources may be used by the teacher as well as by the student.
    Key words: online resource, English, the structure and functions of the BBC Learning English.
    1. Vashchenko, Svitlana. 2016. “Osoblyvosti Vykorystannia Media Biblioteky yak Zasobu Navchannia Inozemnoi Movy Studentiv Nemovnykh VNZ”. Visnyk Zhytomyrskoho Derzhavnoho Universytetu imeni Ivana Franka, 2: 15–19.
    2. Hritchenko, Iryna. 2011. “Vprovadzhennia Internet-Tekhnolohii v Osvitnii Protses Pidhotovky Maibutnoho Vchytelia Inozemnoi Movy”. Psykholoho-Pedahohichni Problemy Silskoi Shkoly, 39(1): 103–109.
    3. Karpa, Iryna. 2015. “Vykorystannia Veb-Storinok ta Sotsialnoi Merezhi Facebook u Protsesi Navchannia Anhliiskoi Movy”. Aktualni Pytannia Humanitarnykh Nauk, 12: 267–272.
    4. Kostenko, Ivan. 2013. “Vykorystannia Internet-Resursiv na Urokakh Anhliiskoi Movy”. Tavriiskyi Visnyk Osvity, 1: 170–176.
    5. BBC Learning English. http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningenglish/english/course/english-you-need.

  20. Mamosiuk O. Form and Content of the Linguocognitive Narrative Scenario CIRCLE in A. Robbe-Grillet’s Novels. - C. 113-117.
    The article is devoted to revealing the architectonic-compositional, lexical-semantic and stylistic-syntactic features of the deployment in the linguocognitive narrative scenario CIRCLE in A. Robbe-Grillet’s novels. Their conditionality by the type of narration, the constituents of the narrative and various characteristics of the text are demonstrated on the material of the analysis of the prose works by A. Robbe-Grillet. The article outlines a new approach to the construction of linguocognitive scenarios of the narrative of the French literary texts of the New Roman period. The peculiarities of the dynamics of the functioning and deployment of the focalization code in the linguocognitive narrative scenario CIRCLE of A. Robbe-Grillet’s prose works are revealed. The compositional dominants in the construction of linguocognitive scenarios of the narrative of A. Robbe-Grillet’s art texts are established. The regularities of the semiotic configuration of the compositional and semantic components of the linguocognitive narrative scenarios are revealed. The main tendencies of the narrative manner of the aforementioned New Roman period’s writer from the standpoint of cognitive-interpretative and communicative approaches are described.
    Key words: narrative structure, cognitive-narrative scenography, linguocognitive narrative scenario, focalization code, semiotic configuration.
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  21. Makaruk L. A Typology of English Multimodal Texts, and their Distinctive Features.- C. 106-112.
    This article deals with the peculiarities of modern English multimodal discourse, taking into account the distinctive features of the mass-media space. Various features of electronic and paper publications have been outlined in terms of the technical capabilities and the number of modes which are utilized there. Paralinguistic means have been identified, which are integral parts of multimodal discourse in general and multimodal texts in particular. The differentiation of the concepts of “monomodal text” and “multimodal text” has been the object of particular focus. On the basis of an analysis of periodicals, a presentation has been given of the most common manifestations of the compatibility of semiotic resources with each other and with non-semiotic resources. The peculiarities of separate modes and their role in communication have been analyzed. Factors that confirm the necessity of carrying out multimodal discourse research have been outlined. A comparative description of the text categories of monomodal and multimodal texts has been carried out. The importance of using non-verbal semiotic resources has been demonstrated. It has been shown for the first time that within the framework of discourse and of text, there are no graphic effects or processes, including segmentation, which can be classed as unimportant. A number of monomodal and multimodal models have been suggested.
    Key words: monomodal text, multimodal text, discourse, models, semiotic resources, paralingual components.
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    Komunikatsiia, 126–127. Lviv: Natsionalnyi Universytet “Lvivska Politekhnika”.
    4. Forceville, Charles. 2006. “Non-verbal and multimodal metaphor in a cognitivist framework: Agendas for research”. In Cognitive Linguistics: Current Applications and Future Perspectives, edited by G. Kristiansen et al., 379– 402. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
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  22. Navrotska I. The Development of the Course “The Basics of Translation and Methods of Teaching Translation”. - C. 117-122.
    The article is devoted to the problem of methods of teaching translation as a professional subject for university students at the early stage of studies. The development of the programme of this educational discipline requires a systemic approach encompassing the authoritative scholarly and methodological sources analysis, the choice of prominent scholars’ key principles and strategies in the sphere of translation/interpreting studies with the aim of forming the professional competence of a translator/interpreter. The process of teaching the studied discipline is viewed in two planes: as a general theoretical and as a methodological course, which predetermines the orientation, on the one hand, on already described in scholarly literature widespread theoretical notions, typological classifications and systems of training interpreters and translators, and, on the other hand, on complexes of receptive and productive training exercises for teaching interpreters/translators. The studies effectiveness depends on the optimal proportion of theoretical and didactic material. The differentiating approach to the formation and fixation of oral and written translation skills presupposes using study materials from adjacent spheres of knowledge according to the level of the students’ educational competence.
    Key words: translation, professional competence of a ranslator/interpreter, methods of teaching translation, study principles, study components, training exercises.
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  23. Pietsukh O. Category of Intertextuality in the Political Discourse of the UK Parliamentary Debates.- C. 123-128.
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    Key words: parliamentary debates, political discourse, intertextuality, communicative move, speech act,quotation, reminiscence.
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  24. Radkevych V. Peculiarities of Dialogues in Personages’ Intergender Communication (on the Material of English-Language Male and Female Prose).- C. 128-136.
    The article deals with studying of gender marked issues of inter-gender dialogues taken from contemporary English-language prose fiction written by male and female authors. The topicality of the study is determined by exploiting of the perspectivization principle when the view point is gender determined, thus the investigation is performed along two vectors: the gender issue of the discourse author and the gender of the dialogue participant. The following parameters of inter-gender dialogues are investigated: the profuseness and development of conversational turns with quantitative data, the breach of dialogue structure by interruptions, silence as the reaction to the interlocutor’s conversational turn, as well as quantitative and qualitative features of inter-gender dialogues initiation. The analysis resulted in stating the gender markedness of the given parameters considering both vectors thus showing some distinct qualitative features of inter-gender communication determined by the gender of its participant. The breach of dialogue structure by interruptions is observed largely in female prose. Silence as the reaction to the interlocutor’s conversational turn is a typical characteristics of female communication behaviour. Male personages in discourses created by male authors tend to use statements and various other ways to start their inter-gender dialogues which are difficult to summarize.
    Key words: inter-gender dialogue, communicative cooperation, communicative partner, gender markedness, two-vector study.
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    9. Mac Laury, R. E. 1995. “Vantage Theory”. Language and the Cognitive Construal of the World, edited by J. R. Taylor; R. E. Mac Laury, 231–276. Berlin; New York: Moutonde Gruyter.
    10. Merleau-Ponty, M. 1993. “Eye and Mind”. In The Merleau-Ponty Aesthetics Reader: Philosophy and Painting, edited by G. Johnson, 121–149. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press.

  25. Saraniuk Y. Role of Slots HERE and NOW of GLAMOUR Concept in Communicative Strategies of Mass Media Discourse. - C. 136-141.
    The article deals with the conceptual component of the GLAMOUR concept, verbalized in modern mass-media discourse. The elements that form the conceptual component of the GLAMOUR concept, are structured in the form of a frame, which can be modeled on the basis of the actional frame by S.A. Zhabotynska. We consider the filling of slots HERE and NOW of frames ACHIEVING GLAMOUR (assumptions about the place represented by the concepts of EXPENSIVE RESORT, EXPENSIVE YACHT, EXPENSIVE MANSION, HUGE CLOSET) and BUYING GLAMOUR (the concept of FAMOUS EXPENSIVE BRAND STORE). These frames structure the assumptions of various ways to achieve glamour by two different social groups: celebrities and ordinary people. Also, the author outlines strategies, namely, strategies of recipient removal, playing with the recipient, and recipient involvement, used to shape the recipient’s interpretation of the GLAMOUR concept. The analysis shows that the discourse, in which the GLAMOUR concept is verbalized, does not only inform recipients of the concept as such, but also encourages to certain actions.
    Key words: mass-media discourse, GLAMOUR concept, conceptual component, frame, slot, strategy.
    1. Vorkachev, S. G. 2004. Schastiie kak Lingvokulturnyi Contsept. Moskva: Gnozis.
    2. Zhabotinskaia, S. A. “Kontseptualnyi Analiz: Tipy Freimov”. Vіsnyk Cherkaskoho Derzhavnoho Unіversytetu Imeni B. Hmelnytskoho, 11: 12–25.
    3. Karasik, V. I. 2004. Jazykovoi Krug: Lichnost, Kontsepty, Diskurs. Moskva: Gnozis.
    4. Gundle, S. 2009. Glamour: a History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    5. Cambridge Dictionary. 2017. Cambridge University Press. http://dictionary.cambridge.org/ dictionary/english/.
    6. Youtube. 2015. “Celebrity Wife Swap USA (Season 4 Episode 8. Cloris Leachman/Pia Zadora)”.


    7. Curbed. 2016. “The 26 most expensive houses for sale in Los Angeles right now”.


    8. Daily Treat. 2016. “Get A Sneak Peek At The Most Glamorous Celebrity Closets”.


    9. Global Blue. 2012. “Prada’s glamorous new Parisian store”. http://www.globalblue.com/destinations/france/paris/pradas-glamorous-new-parisian-store/.
    10. Sailboats. 2016. “Christina O –The Glamorous Superyacht – Sign of Opulence in 1950’s is on Sale”. http://sailboats.com/blog/2016/07/01/christina-o-the-glamorous-super-yacht-sign-of-opulence-in-1950s-is-on-sale/#more-2159.
    11. Youtube. 2004. “Vacation Swap – 2004 (ABC) Hawn Family”. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YKugqPAl0qc

  26. Smolnytska O. The Reflecting the Features of Non-Standart Feminine Character in the Ukrainian Translations of the Selected Satirical Poems by Jonathan Swift. - C. 141-150.
    The various aspects of Ukrainian translations of the poetry by Jonathan Swift are under analysis. This research could be topical because this writer known as the author of “Gulliver Travels” and pamphlets is not evaluated in the world as a poet. The Ukrainian context is compared there. The biographical analysis demonstrates parallels between private life and career of J. Swift and the Ukrainian political personalities of the baroque and classicism periods. The materials of analysis are the poems “Daphne” and “Phyllis, Or, The Progress of Love”. The feminine characters, Daphne and Phyllis, are taking into account. The Ukrainian poem (lampoon) of the baroque poetess Olena Kopot’-Zhuravnytska is compared. The biblical context and the comparing with the texts by Lessya Ukrainka are researched. The thesaurus, biographical, comparative, gender studies analyses are given. The research illustrates problems which appear when the translator with the poems by J. Swift works. The poems are given in the originals and the translations by Maksym Strikha (“Phyllis…”) and by the author of the article (“Daphne”).
    Key words and phrases: translation, poetry, gender, satire, baroque, classicism.
    1. Azov, Andrei. 2013. Poverzhennyie Bukvalisty. Iz Istorii Khudozhestvennogo Perevoda v SSSR v 1920–1960-e Gody. Moskva. http://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/1032070/Azov_-_Poverzhennye_bukvalisty.html, na rus. jaz.,svobodnyj.
    2. Strikha, Maksym, transl. 2016. “Brytanski Poety 16–18 Stolit: virshi”. Kyiv: Literaturno-Khudozhnii i
    Hromadsko-Politychnyi Zhurnal Pysmennykiv Ukrayiny, 11/12: 152–153.
    3. Hrinchenko, Borys. 1928. Slovnyk Ukrainskoi Movy. Tom 3: K–N, edited by S. Yefremova, A. Nikovskyi. Kyiv: Horno.
    4. Levitskii, O. 1889. “Ocherki Starinnogo Byta Volyni i Ukrainy. Tom 1: Paskvil i Sud”. Kiievskaia Starina.
    God vosmoi, XXV: 98. Kiiev: Tipografiia G. T. Korchak-Novitskogo.
    5. 2017. Lyst Viry Vovk do Olhy Smolnytskoi vid 30 travnia, 16:10 (Z Osobystoho Arkhivu Olhy Smolnytskoi).
    6. Li, Harper. 2016. Idy, vartovoho postav. Translated by Tetiana Nekriach. Kyiv: KM-BUKS.
    7. Miram, Gennadii. 1999. Professiia: Perevodchik. Kiiev: Nika-Centr.
    8. Sviate Pysmo Staroho ta Novoho Zavitu. Povnyi Pereklad, Zdiisnenyi za Oryhinalnymy Yevreiskymy,
    Aramiiskymy ta Hretskymy Tekstamy. Ukrainian Bible 63 DC. United Bible Societies 1990 – 55 M.
    9. Smolnytska, Olha. 2017. “Katehoriia Sakralnoho/Profannoho u Vybranii Lirytsi Viry Vovk na Temu
    Antychnosti ta Vidrodzhennia: Komparatyvnyi Analiz”. Kremenetski Komparatyvni Studii, 8.
    10. Smolnytska, Olha. 2016. “Spetsyfika Tvorcho-Komunikatyvnoho Samovyiavlennia u Vybranykh Virshakh Ketrin Filips (1631/32 – 1664) – Anhliiskoi Poetesy Doby Restavratsii: Perekladoznavchyi Aspekt”. Naukovyi Visnyk Mizhnarodnoho Humanitarnoho Universytetu. Seriia: “Filolohiia”, 25 (2): 193 – 197. Odesa.
    11. Trosh, Sabriie. 2016. “Henderna Kartyna Svitu v Anhliiskii Poezii Periodu Restavratsii (na Materiali
    Tvorchosti S. Batlera)”. Naukovi Zapysky Natsionalnoho Universytetu “Ostrozka Akademiia”. Seriia
    “Filolohichna”, 61: 280–283.
    12. Trosh, Sabriie. 2016. “Evoliutsiia Hendernoho Dyskursu v Brytanskii Poezii Kintsia 17 – Pochatku 18 Stolit”. Inozemna Filolohiia, 129: 90–102.
    13. Ukrainka, Lesia. 1976. “V Katakombakh”. Zibrannia Tvoriv: u 12-ty Tomakh. Tom 3: Dramatychni Tvory (1896–1906), 240–262. Kyiv: Naukova Dumka.
    14. “Dean (n.)”. Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=dean. – Accessed: 30.05.2017.
    15. “Rogue (n.)”. Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=rogue. – Accessed: 30.05.2017.

  27. Stanislav O. Cognitive Plane of Study of Separation and Cohesion (on the Material of French Syntax). - C. 150-155.
    Research study proposes to consider the problem of syntactic relationships (cohesion and separation) in a new focus of the study: from the point of view of cognitive analysis. The article describes the mechanisms of formation; perception and interpretation of knowledge on the basis of syntactic cohesions and separation on the material of modern french language. The methodological foundations of the study are based on such dominant features of the modern paradigm of humanitarian knowledge as anthropocentrism, functionalism, and pragmatism. It is substantiated that national information of a certain stage of cultural development is reflected on the syntactic level through the formal means – the structure of the text and its constituent units. The activation of certain syntactic constructions in separate historical periods, the emergence of new ways of structuring idea can be explained by the influence on the language of social and cultural factors. It is established that cohesion represents the syntactic structures of the classical syntax. First of all, they form analytical, precise, pragmatic thinking of recipients based on the principles of logic, normativity and syntactic hierarchy. Separation, representing the syntactic structure of the actualizing syntax, is characterized by non-standard syntactic constructions, high expressiveness of expression, and the expansion of its informative boundaries. Separation contributes to the development of figurative, sensory and abstract thinking in recipients.
    Key words and phrases: classic syntax, cohesion, actualizing syntax, separation, syntax of spoken language, cognitive aspect of the analysis, logical thinking, sensual and imaginative perception, syntactic synthesis of cohesion and separation.
    1. Akimova, Galina. 1990. Novoe v Sintaksise Sovremennogo Russkogo Yazyka. Moskva: Vysshaia Shkola.
    2. Andriievskaia, Aleksandra. 1969. “Yavleniia «Separatizatsyi» v Stilisticheskom Sintaksise Sovremennoi
    Frantsuzskoi Khudozhestvennoi Prozy”. Filologicheskiie Nauki, 3: 77–83.
    3. Pokrovskaia, Elena. 2001. “Etapy Razvitiia Russkogo Sintaksisa v Lingvokulturo-logicheskom Aspekte”.
    Russkii Yazyk, 8 (62): 45–53.
    4. Referovskaia, Elena. 1969. Sintaksis Sovremennogo Frantsuzskogo Yazyka. Leningrad: Nauka.
    5. Bazin, Hervé. 1972. Œuvres. Paris: Éditions Bernard Grasset.
    6. Breton, André. 1964. Nadja. Paris: Éditions Gaillimard.
    7. Maurois, André. 1978. Climats. Paris: Éditions Bernard Grasset.
    8. Saint-Exupéry, Antoine. 2008. Terre des hommes. Paris: Gallimard.
    9. Sarraute, Nathalie. 1957. Tropismes. Paris: Éditions de Minuit.
    10. Sartre, Jean-Paul. 1998. La nausée. Paris: Éditions Gallimard.
    11. Troyat, Henri. 1994. Le Marchand de masques. Paris: Éditions VDP.

  28. Tryhub H., Khnykina O. Computer Testing as an Important Means of Student Foreign Language Proficiency Assessment at Non-Specialized Faculties.- C. 155-160.
    The article is devoted to the complex analysis of computer testing as an important means of student foreign language proficiency assessment at non-specialized faculties. The effectiveness of this form of foreign language academic performance rating has been highlighted. The basic advantages and disadvantages of the computer-based form of test control in terms of academics and teachers have been revealed. The most common positive and negative aspects of computer-based testing have been mentioned by students. The students have suggested some significant recommendations as for test databases developing and updating at non- specialized faculties. The results of the study have made it possible to distinguish the degree of test complexity and the most difficult tasks for students. In order to improve tests, optimize students’ training and their academic performance some important shortcomings and recommendations as for computer-based testing at non-specialiized faculties should be taken into account.
    Key words: computer testing, information technology (IT), software, didactic principles, differential training, academic performance.
    1. Avanesov, V. S. 2005. Teoriia i Metodika Pedagogicheskikh Izmerenii. http://www.monitoring.in.ua/
    publications/view/12 – Tsentr monitorinhu stolichnoi osvity.
    2. Avanesov, V. S. 2004. “Osnovy Pedagogicheskoi Teorii Izmerenii”. Pedagogicheskiie Izmereniia, 1: 15–21.
    3. Аskoiants, P. H., and Chekal, H. S., and Serdiukov, P. I. 2004. Osnovy Metodyky Stvorennia ta Zastosuvannia Kompiuternykh Prohram u Navchanni Inozemnykh Mov. Кyiv: КDPІІМ.
    4. Herasymchuk, O. B., and Kyrylov, M. A. 2011. “Pidsumkovyi Kontrol u Formi Kompiuternoho Testuvannia”.
    Materialy 6 Mizhnarodnоi Naukovo-Praktychnoi Konferentsii “Spetsproekt: Analiz Naukovykh Doslidzhen”, 5: 92–96. Dnipropetrovsk: Bila K. O.
    5. Izvozchikov, V. A., et al., eds. 1989. Didakticheskiie Osnovy Kompiuternogo Obuchenia. Mezhvuzovskii
    Sbornik Nauchnykh Statei. Leningrad: LTI imeni А. I. Hertsena.
    6. Кlain, P. 1994. Spravochnoie Rukovodstvo po Konstruirovaniiu Testov. Кiev: PАN-LTD.
    7. 2003. “Kompleks Normatyvnykh Dokumentiv dlia Rozrobky Skladovykh System Standartiv Vyshchoi Osvity. Zasoby Diahnostyky Yakosti Vyshchoi Osvity”. Informatsiinyi Visnyk “Vyshcha Osvita”, 10: 67–82.
    8. Lobanov, Yu. I. 2002. Diahnostka Znanii v Otkrytom Obrazovanii. Мoskva: NIIVO.
    9. Oliinyk, М. М., and Romanenko, Yu. A. 2001. Test yak Instrument Kilkisnoi Diahnostyky Rivnia Znan v
    Suchasnykh Tekhnolohiiakh Navchannia. Donetsk: Don.NU: 84.
    10. Romanov, А. N., and Toropilov, V. S., and Hryhorovych, D. B. 2000. Tekhnologii Distantsyonnogo
    Obucheniia v Sisteme Zaochnogo Ekonomicheskogo Obrazovaniia. Мoskva: Yuniti-dana.
    11. Serdiukov, P. І. 1996. Tekhnolohia Rozrobky Kompiuternykh Prohram z Inozemnykh Mov. Кyiv: Lenvit.

  29. Trotsiuk A. Nonverbal Means of Expressing the Meaning of Indifference in Modern English. - C. 160-166.
    The article deals with the nonverbal means of expressing the emotional state of indifference and the specificity of their interaction with verbal ones in the English fiction discourse. The research presents the list of nonverbal means of expressing the state of indifference. The study proves that indifference is implied by kinesic (mimics, gestures, positions of the body, step, eye contacts), haptic (kisses, touches) and prosodic nonverbal means. Kinesic and prosodic nonverbal components are dominant. Kinesic and haptic nonverbal components may be used both independently and may accompany verbalized messages. Prosodic nonverbal means of expressing indifference are not used autonomously. Depending upon the position in the discourse nonverbal components of indifference perform different functions. In the initial position, they create the emotional background for verbal part of the utterance. In the medial position, nonverbal components of indifference specify the meaning of verbal ones. In the final position, they strengthen the meaning of verbal utterances.
    Key words: nonverbal component, kinesics, prosodics, haptics, emotional state of indifference.
    1. Babych, N. D. 1990. Osnovy Kultury Movlennia. Lviv: Svit.
    2. Batsevych, F. S. 2004. Osnovy Komunikatyvnoi Linhvistyky. Kyiv: Akademiia.
    3. Bohdanov, V. V. 1987. “Funktsyi Verbalnykh i Neverbalnykh Komponentov v Rechevom Obshchenii”.
    Yazykovoie Obshchenie: Edinitsy i Rehuliativy, 18−25. Kalinin.
    4. Borysov, O. O. 2004. “Neverbalni Markery Vyrazhennia Emotsiinoho Kontseptu “strakh” (na Materiali
    Suchasnoi Anhlomovnoi Khudozhnioi Prozy)”. Visnyk Zhytomyrskoho Derzhavnoho Universytetu Imeni I. Franka, 16:130−133.
    5. Hnatiuk, A. V. 2014. “Verbalni ta Neverbalni Zasoby na Poznachennia Sumnivu v Suchasnomu
    Anhlomovnomu Khudozhniomu Dyskursi”. PhD diss., Lvivskyi Natsionalnyi Univesytet Imeni I. Franka.
    6. Honchar, K. L. 2009. “Neverbalni Zasoby Komunikatsii na Poznachennia Vykhvaliannia”. Naukovyi Visnyk VNU, 5: 392−395.
    7. Kyseliuk, N. P. 2009. “Verbalni ta Neverbalni Zasoby Aktualizatsii Emotsiinoho Stanu Radosti v
    Khudozhniomu Dyskursi (na Materiali Anhlomovnoi Prozy 20–21 Stolit)”. PhD diss., Kyivskyi Natsionalnyi
    Linhvistychnyi Universytet.
    8. Kreidlin, H. E. 2000. “Russkie Zhesty i Zhestovyie Frazeologizmy: Otrazheniie Naivnoi Etiki v Neverbalnom i Verbalnom Kodakh”. Logicheskii Analiz Yazyka: Yazyki Etiki, 341−353. Moskva: Yazyki Russkoi Kultury.
    9. Samoilovych, L. V. 2003. “Vidobrazhennia Kinetychnykh Zasobiv Neverbalnoho Spilkuvannia v Ukrainskykh Frazeolohizmakh”. Kultura Narodov Prychernomoria, 37: 172–175.
    10. Soloshchuk, L. V. 2006. Verbalni i Neverbalni Komponenty Komunikatsii v Anhlomovnomu Dyskursi.
    Kharkiv: Konstanta.
    11. Starodubtseva, O. A. 2002. “Leksyko-Semantychni Zasoby Kinetychnoi Kharakterystyky Komunikanta”. PhD diss., Kyivskyi Natsionalnyi Universytet Imeni Tarasa Shevchenka.
    12. Trusov, V. P. 1982. “Vyrazhenie Emotsii na Litse (po Materialam Rabot P. Eklana)”. Voprosy Psikholohii, 5:144–147.
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    Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 37 (2): 132−139. Hoboken: The Scandinavian Psychological Associations and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    15. Mehrabian, Albert. 1972. Nonverbal Communication. London (UK) and New Brunswick (USA): Aldine
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  30. Ushchyna V. The Subject of Discourse Activity and the Identity Theory. - C. 167-178.
    The article considers the notion of the discourse activity subject in its relation to the notion of identity as a complex, multi-faceted and discursive phenomenon, giving the outline of various approaches to its exploration and focusing on the correlation between its individual/personal and the social/collective levels. It has been suggested that identity is constructed in discourse and by discourse in the unity of its social (collective, interactive) and cognitive (individual, personal) levels, thus making the socio-cognitive approach to the study of discourse indispensable for researching identity. Identity is formed in discourse not only as a subjective presentation of self but also as a product of all the communication participants’ activities. Consequently, both individual and social levels of identity are discernible due to the thorough linguistic analysis of cognitive, discursive and interactive mechanisms of self- and other-identification. As a complex and multidimensional phenomenon, identity is created by a discourse subject as a manifold of stances taken by him or her in different discourse situations. From this perspective a situational identity is a kind of individual identity which is constructed, confirmed, denied or adjusted by the subject of discourse activity in the process of communicative interaction with other subjects under specific situational conditions. The notion of identity as a self-contradictory and unstable phenomenon remains open to new research, constant renewal and radical transformations.
    Key words: subject of discourse activity, identity, situational identity, stance, socio-cognitive approach to discourse analysis.
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  31. Frumkina A. The Inherent Vowel’s Characteristic and its Influence on the Glottal Stop Realization. - C. 179-184.
    The glottal stop is the unique feature of federative-German vocalism, which distinguishes it from the Austrian and the Swiss versions of the German language. Physiological features of the appearance and formation of vowel stops play an important role in the study of spoken language, because they reflect communicative habits and the articulatory base of native speakers. The question of the direct influence of the inherent vowel’s characteristic on the presence of a glottal stop is considered. The article also provides an overview of theoretical literature, examines the types and types of seizures of the aspirated (German gehauchter / behauchter Einsatz), soft (German weicher Einsatz), quiet (German leiser Einsatz), strong (German fester Einsatz), compressed (German harter Einsatz), compressed / pathological (German gepresster Einsatz), glottal (German Glottisschlsgeinsatz), and its reduced forms – cracky voice (German Glottalisierung) and the seamless transition (German nahtloser Übergang ).
    Keywords: glottal stop, vocalism system, vowel, vowels’ stop, incoherent characteristic, spoken language.
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    The article deals with the notion “linguistic manipulation”, its peculiarities and common tools for realizing language influence within the text is depicted. Linguistic influence denotes not only to the political or advertising discourse but also to the fictional discourse in case when either a writer or his character has defined consciously or unconsciously the aim of his speech. Mediation as a form of conflict resolution with the view of studying the peculiarities of linguistic manipulation ask the negotiator to decode the linguistic and extralinguistic means of communication that are proposed by the opposite sides. A social conflict takes an important role in fiction where the plurality of thoughts is depicted and at the same time a reader is entitled to lead an inner conflict with himself. The necessity of the language influence is correlated with the necessity of decoding the important points of reader’s background. As a result a narrator is asked to become a negotiator between the reader’s opposite views in his inner dialogue.
    Key words: linguistic manipulation, forms of linguistic interrelation, communicative competence, contextual specification, rhetoric expressions.
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