Akimova Alina. The Influence of the Cultural Revolution on Contemporary Chinese Drama. – C. 5–8.
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
The Influence of the Cultural Revolution on Contemporary Chinese Drama
The article outlines how to develop drama analyzes the different perspectives of Chinese, European and Ukrainian researchers and scientists. Emphasized that the latest eksperymentalnist Chinese drama was related to the upgrade of form and content. determined the most significant features of the socio-political influence on the texts of dramas, particularly in Van Peyhuna creativity. The analysis of drama Van Peyhuna “We” found avant-garde play, which was defined on content-ideological, plot, figurative levels. The course of events in the drama of conflict occurred involving a number of contemporary authors of characters that have been submitted different social strata. Clarification of the circumstances of their lives helped determine the effect of the “Cultural revolution” in the establishment and development of a generation of hope, loss, hope, desire. Understanding the author the specific philosophical categories of existence, turnover time, friendship strengthened dramatic works. Van Peyhunom simulated imagery and aural level was intentionally complicated musical digressions.
Key words: modern Chinese drama, Chinese literature, synthesis visual and verbal, avant-garde plays, eksperymentalnist, “Cultural revolution”, a new generation of image-aural level.
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Beznosіuk Aleksandr, Zlаtnikov Valentin. Psycholinguistic Features of Listening as a Kind of Verbal Activity. – C. 9–14.
Beznosіuk Aleksandr, Zlаtnikov Valentin
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
Psycholinguistic Features of Listening as a Kind of Verbal Activity
The article deals with the psychological features of listening comprehension. The author analyzes the psychological nature of listening comprehension as a process. The article stresses that the problem of listening comprehension is of great importance both in terms of the methodology of teaching of a foreign language, and in terms of psychology and linguistics, since different aspects of the problem are studied by various sciences. The process of perceiving a message is not just a passive mapping of reality, but rather an active human function in which an audible code is perceived and processed, upon which the message is decoded and by means of a universal subject code is converted into an image. From the point of view of psychology, perception is a multilevel process, one of the most complex types of speech-related activity. For this reason, it is the element of foreign language study which should take center stage in the training of students, since accurate listening comprehension makes it possible to master the vocabulary of a foreign language more quickly.
Key words: professionally-orientated listening comprehension, skills in professionally-orientated listening comprehension, complex of exercises.
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Biskub Iryna. Towards Defining Linguistic and Cognitive Categorization. - C. 14–21.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Towards Defining Linguistic and Cognitive Categorization
The article highlights the main approaches towards understanding the concepts ‘cognitive categorization’, ‘language categorization’, and ‘linguistic categorization’. Modern cognitive linguistics is in need of a methodologically relevant approach to the use of its key concepts such as ‘categorization’ and ‘category’ which are of primary importance to any research domain. Discriminating between cognitive and linguistic categorization makes it possible to clearly specify research objectives and to verify the results of linguistic investigations. In modern cognitive scientific paradigm categorization is viewed as a tool for constructing the knowledge about the world, as well as a powerful means of cognition. Cognitive categorization is directly related to cognitive modeling, and cognitive models. Linguistic categorization, in its turn, focuses on dividing the system of language into the groups of words based on overall taxonomic principles of class division. The article gives reasons for establishing two main approaches to understanding linguistic categorization. On the one hand, linguistic categorization can be treated as a universal means of cognitive and linguistic modeling of knowledge. On the other hand – as the use of existing linguistic (grammatical, syntactic, semantic and conceptual) categories for various research and applied purposes.
Key words: categorization, categories, cognitive categorization, linguistic categorization, modeling, model.
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Bondar Tetiana. Riddles as a Source of Conceptual Features of a Concept under Consideration (Using Riddles Related to the Concept ROAD as Source Material). – C. 22–26.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Riddles as a Source of Conceptual Features of a Concept under Consideration (Using Riddles Related to the Concept ROAD as Source Material)
The article shows that riddles about a certain reality are a valuable source of conceptual features of a concept under consideration. This idea is predetermined by pragmatics of the riddle. In traditional culture the aim of asking someone to solve a riddle is to receive a right answer from a concrete person who the riddle is addressed. That is why the text of a riddle is built on well-known, widely-spread beliefs about an object. These beliefs appeal to background knowledge of a communicator. Concepts are represented in riddles through a set of certain features. The subject matter of our research is riddles that represent concept ROAD. The array of Ukrainian and Russian riddles describing road was analysed. Main and peripheral features of the concept under consideration were discovered. It is shown that the image of the road portrayed in riddles represents mainly external characteristics of the road that are accessible to visual perception. The main conceptual features that represent concept ROAD in Ukrainian and Russian riddles are its considerable extension in space (length), permanent horizontal location in space (irremovability and inactivity) and ability to lead somewhere. These features are presented in a large number of riddles. Other conceptual features (such as curvature of a road, its usefulness for people, old age, ability to gain knowledge and availability of great number of roads) should be referred to peripheral ones as they are observed only in few riddles.
Key words: riddle, concept, conceptual feature, cognitive linguistics, paremia.
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Bondarchuk Olena. Linquocultural Type Aussteiger in the Cultural Linquistics. – C. 26-32.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Linquocultural Type Aussteiger in the Cultural Linquistics
The article analyzes Aussteiger as the linquocultural type in the framework of cultural linguistics. LC type – is typed personality which recognition is due to some specific characteristics of verbal and non-verbal behavior and values. Linguistic identity Aussteiger is involved in the aspect of the typed linguocultural verbal behavior. The main criteria for the selection of linguocultural types are social class, territorial, event, ethno-cultural uniqueness, transformationality. Aussteiger is described for signs linguocultural typecasting: associativity, the recurrent, wide recognition, sign, brightness, typicality, precedent. Linguocultural type is separated from the adjacent concepts belonging to the communicative behavior, such as: the role, line of character, image and stereotype speech portrait. Linguocultural type is considered as linguocultural concept, which consists of three components: the conceptual, figurative and value components. Linquocultural type – concept which studies typed language identity.
Key words: cultural linguistics, linguocultural type, concept, language personality, Aussteiger.
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Voloshynovych Nataliia. Speech Aggression in the Internet Mediated Communication. – C. 32–38.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Speech Aggression in the Internet Mediated Communication
The article deals with the Internet communication which is considered as a process of mutual information exchange between individuals using verbal and non-verbal communication systems, computer-mediated communication, which opens a new dimension in human communication and makes it possible to store and quickly transfer large amounts of information, use of audio and video channels in on-line communication, that is, linear direct contact with the respondent. The article outlines a destructive communicative intent in the form of verbal aggression in different types of Internet communication. The emphasis is laid on the manifestation of social aggression in the works of national and foreign researchers. The article covers the difference of such expressive, aggressive forms of online interaction as trolling, flaming,and cyberbulling in social networks and popular sites and offers a typology of the most common types of trolling, flaming and cyberbulling. It is determined that virtual communication with violation of ethics in networking is used in the process of personalized communication between parties interested in more recognition, publicity or epatage, and in the anonymous user interaction, which is made without the possibility of identifying the real subject of virtual communication in order to control the lives of others, to manipulate their mood and behavior and to satisfy one’s desires.
Key words: speech aggression, Internet communication, trolling, flaming, cyberbulling.
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Huz Olena. The Peculiarities of the Spanish Language in the Сountries of Latin America. – C. 39–44.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
The Peculiarities of the Spanish Language in the Сountries of Latin America
This article is devoted to the analyses of the language situation in the countries of Latin America. The problem of the formation of the Spanish language is examined in the Latin-American areal, the functioning features of language are described on phonetic, morphological, syntactic and lexical levels. It is proved that the Spanish language pressed-on to Latin America conquerors evolved differently, depending on a region and influence of indigenous languages. Established that the Spanish language of Latin America is characterized by a large number of common features that distinguish it from the language of Spain, the most differences between the Pyrenean variant and Latin American variant are observed on phonetic and lexical levels. It is given definition of “national version of the language” which characterized by its own features that appear on different linguistic levels as a result of influence of extralinguistic factors: cultural, social, territorial, time, substrate and so on. The carried out research leads to the conclusion that the Spanish language, despite their national variants, remains for today an only language in iberoamerican and world culture.
Key words: the Spanish language, national version, language level, Latin America, dialect, Romance languages.
- Vinogradov, Venedikt. 2003. Leksikologiia Ispanskogo Yazyka. Moskva: Vysshaia Shkola.
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Gusak Liudmyla. Associative Mastering of the Foreign Language Material by Younger Pupils. – C. 44–51.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Associative Mastering of the Foreign Language Material by Younger Pupils
This article deals with the formation of images in foreign language teaching. A special attention has been devoted to the peculiarities of associative teaching and associative mastering of the foreign learning material. The technology of the associative teaching influences the effectiveness of foreign language learning, stimulates and improves primary school pupils’ memory. Associative learning is generally oriented towards training that relates to modern innovative technology, with new objectives and tasks for the teaching of foreign languages, and is better able to meet individual and the age-specific needs in elementary schools, which particularly involve opportunities to play, to move around, and to absorb impressions from outdoor settings–something which is a cognitive essential. In the development of foreign language competence in primary school children at the early stages of their studies, it is important to set up a teaching process which is based on the associative nature of perception, memorization and reproduction of educational information by students.
Key words: foreign language teaching, primary school pupils, associative teaching of the foreign language, image, associative mastering of the learning material.
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Dmytrasevych Rostyslav. To the Problem of the English Legal Psychology Terms Classification. – C. 51–56.
Ivan Franko National University of Lviv
To the Problem of the English Legal Psychology Terms Classification
The article analyzes the English legal terminology of psychology. Attention is paid to its formation and development. Due to the use of English terminology of legal psychology in many specific areas, including psychology, law, forensics, investigation actions and so on the research is rather actual. An important feature of the English legal terminology of psychology is borrowing terms from many different sciences; some of them are used as auxiliaries, while others serve as a basis for solving key problems. The division of the English legal terminology of psychology in accordance with word building groups and lexical-semantic features is given. Classification of highly specialized legal terms of psychology is presented. Semantic model of legal psychology that shows lexical-semantic categories of components of words or phrases and type of semantic connections between them is established. The structure of the legal terms of English terminology of psychology is identified. The components of terms are distinguished.
Key words: English terminology, legal psychology, the term, word formation, classification, structure, model.
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Zholtaeva Gylnar, Kylyshpaeva Madina, Khanina Nadiia. Cognitive Approach to Forming Communication Competence in Teaching a Foreign Language in the Non-Linguistic Higher Educatinal Establishment. – C. 55–61.
Zholtaeva Gylnar, Kylyshpaeva Madina, Khanina Nadiia
Zhetysu State University after Ilyas Zhansugurov
Cognitive Approach to Forming Communication Competence in Teaching a Foreign Language in the Non-Linguistic Higher Educatinal Establishment
This article discusses the relevance of the task of forming Intercultural Communicative Competence – the ability that lets a language personality go beyond his/her own culture and to acquire the qualities of a mediator of cultures without losing his/her cultural identity. In this case, one of the central tasks of the present stage of study is to create the concept of the cognitive approach in the formation of intercultural communicative competence and, ultimately, competence. One of the foundations of the methodology of forming cross-cultural communicative competence is the active cognitive approach, which involves immersing the student in a pseudo-real, artificially created problematic situation, during which a search is carried out for a solution of problems with the subsequent analysis of verbal and non-verbal actions, as well as for proficiency in graphically depicting and in symbolically presenting frame text or discourse (stereotypical information presented to the consciousness in the form of dynamic and static mental models).
Key words: intercultural communication competence, cognitive approach, linguistic identity, integration, globalization.
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Zhuikova Marharyta. Principles and Dictionary Definitions Regarding Anthropocentrism. – C. 61–68.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Principles and Dictionary Definitions Regarding Anthropocentrism
The human consciousness perceives and reflects the external world in a manner which is selective, rather than uniform, and this in turn is reflected in the outgrowths from the knowledge embodied in the language system of each linguistic and cultural group. Along with this, particularly in the organization of the language, its semantic subsystems have an affect on the universality of the perceptual and cognitive activity of the individual, regardless of racial, cultural or other associations. It is possible to detect manifestations of anthropocentrism in different aspects of language and speech. In this article, it is noted that the activities of lexicographers who formulate dictionary definitions can provide indications regarding general principles of knowledge. For example, specific vocabulary definitions, including those relating to animals and plants taken from English, German, Italian, Ukrainian, Polish and Russian dictionaries, show that the interpretation reflected the major components of cognitive activities, such as isolating a single item within the perceptual continuum of information, categorizing it, selecting distinctive features within subcategories, formulating prototypes, and matching or comparing objects at a single categorical level.
Key words: anthropocentrism, dictionary definition, differential feature, prototype, categorization, comparison
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Zatsnyi Yurii. Trends and the Development Processes of the Lexical-Semantic Macrosystem in Modern English. – C. 68–74.
Zaporizhzhia National University
Trends and the Development Processes of the Lexical-Semantic Macrosystem in Modern English
In this article the peculiarities of lexical-semantic macrosystem in modern English are outlined. The study deals with the fact that the enrichment of the English language with new innovations in form and content occurs through word formation. The processes, mechanisms and tools for creating English-language lexical innovations have been studied. It was noted that a significant proportion of the original elements (root stems, affixes) were at some point borrowed from other languages. It is noted that if a few decades ago, the primary activity was connected with processes such as affixation compounding, then it could be said that in the 21st century it is the so-called telescoping (fragmentation), when new words are formed by splicing two pieces (fragments) of words or one full word and a second element; if this is a fragment of an existing lexeme, they usually do not coincide with real morphemes. Another which has equally fruitful methods of forming innovation can be considered to be the “backward derivation” (also known as back derivation or back formation). There are a number of examples which serve to further illustrate the operation of neologisms in modern English.
Key words: coinage, mechanisms and tools for creating English-language lexical innovation, affixation, telescopes, compounding.
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Khalilova Shahnoza. Formation of Intercultural Competence of Foreign Languages through the System of Higher Education. – C. 74–76.
Formation of Intercultural Competence of Foreign Languages through the System of Higher Education
The current amplitude of globalization and the degree of constant interaction between people with different mentalities and from different cultures points up the importance of gaining experience in the area of intercultural competence. For teachers of foreign languages, developing competence in this field has become one of the main components of their activities. Theoretical reviews of research on this subject and summaries of the achievements of scientists suggest that for future foreign language teachers, the acquisition of experience leading to intercultural competence cannot be obtained using traditional approaches to the problems of their personalities. For the work of students and university teachers, this situation leads to a perpetual block in adapting to the progressive processes of international cultures, because it is not possible to learn a foreign language in a manner that is completely detached from the corresponding foreign culture, or which fails to identify the linkage of that culture with others. In the article the formation of intercultural competence of future teachers of foreign languages, reveals the main principles, objectives and concept of improving intercultural competence of students of pedagogical profile have also been analyzed.
Key words: designing and rebuilding educational reality, creativity, emotional and value relationships, object- intercultural, social and intercultural competence, intercultural autokompetentsiya, moral and aesthetic standards of conduct.
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Kalishchuk Diana. Lexical Markers of Conceptual Styles of Barack Obama and George Bush. – C. 77–82.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Lexical Markers of Conceptual Styles of Barack Obama and George Bush
In the article the main issues of the cognitive styles theory in Ukrainian and foreign linguistics have been highlighted, the differences between the notion of the cognitive and conceptual styles have been characterized. The conceptual style is treated as the dominating method of conceptual organization, as a composite construct that incorporates personal cognitive styles, language means selection and speech organization. The dependence between the cognitive style and dominant style of family relations, which influences cognitive peculiarities of a person, has been characterized. The lingual as well as social, psychological etc. differences between conceptual styles have been defined. The lingual criteria, that allow to differentiate between the analytic and the relational conceptual styles, have been described. The lexical markers that characterize the speech of people with different conceptual styles have been defined and analysed, namely concrete or abstract speech, affective speech, the use of lingual markers of modality etc.
Key words: conceptual style, analytical conceptual style, relational conceptual style, lexical markers.
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Kosovych Olga. Penetration of Anglicisms into Vocabulary of the French Language (on the Materials of On-line Resources). – C. 83–88.
Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University
Penetration of Anglicisms into Vocabulary of the French Language (on the Materials of On-line Resources)
This article deals with the processes of penetration of loanwords from English into French. Attention has been devoted on this fact that influence of mass-media upon language development is very noticeable today. New lexical units that entered to the language by media channels are consolidating solidly in it and are the part of vocabulary of native speakers of French. Texts of on-line editions reflect not only language practice of a lot of social groups of the language society but only frequently develop an active vocabulary of the society, spread a new loanwords and promote their adaptation in the language. The peculiarities of the cyber world have a special influence on the language of the on-line media. Firstly owing to the fact of the language democratization in Internet positive processes are observed that minimize the usage of different kind of bureaucratic words and clichés in the journalistic published works. Secondly the growing of conversational style in materials presenting provokes some journalists to use an inappropriate language means that go beyond the standard of French literary language. A considerable layer of French internet editions voсabulary is formed by borrowings and especially English ones. Innovation technologies cause the penetration of new anglicisms into language where they can function a great while by taking shape by means of French language.
Key words: language development, on-line mass-media, internet communication, borrowing, anglicism, innovation.
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Kotys Olena. Challenges of Teaching Academic Writing to Ukrainian ESL Students. – C. 88–93.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Challenges of Teaching Academic Writing to Ukrainian ESL Students
Academic writing in English is one of the important tools that enable voices of Ukrainian scholars to be heard in the scientific world. Most of Ukrainian universities included this subject into their curricula. Students of the Foreign Philology Department at Lesia Ukrainka Eastern European National University study this subject during their MA course. Our article is based on the teaching experience gained in 2016. We singled out the most frequent challenges that Ukrainian instructors face when teaching academic writing to Ukrainian students. The main problems that occur are the following: students replicate the approaches they used at secondary school when writing compositions in case of writing academic essays, they sometimes fail to understand the purpose and type of an essay they are asked to write; inability to briefly and precisely describe visual information (charts, graphs and tables, etc.), inadequate use of synonyms and paraphrase, unsuccessful use of generalizations, making mistakes when writing summaries.Key words: academic style, English, writing, challenges, teaching methodology, Lesia Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Foreign Philology Department, paraphrase, generalization, synonyms, academic essays.
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Makaruk Larysa. Paralingual Elements as Building Blocks of Contemporary English-Language Multimodal Texts. – C. 88–93.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Paralingual Elements as Building Blocks of Contemporary English-Language Multimodal Texts
In this article an analysis is given of modern English multimodal texts based on their elements embodying form and meaning. This study was conducted on the basis of a typology of nonverbal graphic means which was proposed by the author in previous investigations, and which were divided into several groups that are closely related to one another in multimodal texts. These devices include the segmentation of text and other graphic effects; font and color; non-pictorial and non-photographic paratextual elements; iconic language elements (images); and other non-verbal means. Based on this classification, some of the most common models of modern English multimodal texts have been created. Attention has been given to the specifics of monomodal texts. The analysis of English multimodal texts demonstrates that during the course of their production, their producers utilize at least two different modes. The number of different combinability variants is not fixed, and depends on various factors. One of the most common multimodal text entities can be considered as a combination of verbal text (with specific font and colour traits as intermediary ‘capsules’ through which they form, acting as separate modes) and at least one other additional mode of an illustrative nature, such as a photograph or illustration.Key words: mode, multimodal text semiotic resources, text model.
- Anisimova, Yelena. 2003. Lingvistika Teksta i Mezhkulturnaia Kommunikatsyia (na Matieriale Kreolizovannykh Tekstov). Мoskva: Akademiia.
- Makaruk, Larysa. 2014. “Linhvistychna Multymodalnist”. Mova to Literatura u Polikulturnomu Prostori, 98–102. Lviv : Lohos.
- Makaruk, Larysa. 2015. “Taksonomiia Paralinhvalnykh Zasobiv Komunikatsii”. Kompiuter. Komunikatsiia, 126 – 127. Lviv: Natsionalnyi Universytet “Lvivska Politekhnika”.
- Forceville, Charles. 2006. “Non-verbal and multimodal metaphor in a cognitivist framework: Agendas for research”. In Cognitive Linguistics: Current Applications and Future Perspectives, edited by G. Kristiansen et al., 379–402. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
- Jewitt, Carey, ed. 2009. The Routledge Handbook of Multimodal Analysis. London: Routledge.
- Kress, 2010. Multimodality: a Social Semiotic Approach to Contemporary Communication. London: Routledge.
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Mamosyuk Olena. Polyphony as a Communicative Feature of Nouveau Roman’s Literary Text Construction. – C. 98–104.
Kyiv National Linguistic University
Polyphony as a Communicative Feature of Nouveau Roman’s Literary Text Construction
The article is considered to study the polyphony of text as one of the communicative features of Nouvea ronan’s cognitive-narrative scenarios formation. Francophone artistic discourse of Nouveau roman’s period is considered as the world’s great dialogues that include on an equal rights voice of the narrator, character, reader, the other text that can trace polyphony perception at all stages of the text reading. Polyphony of Nouveau roman’s narration can be traced in pretext and text reading, it is realized both in semantic and syntactic levels. Perception of francophone artistic narrative as a kind of system which determines the voices of the characters, entering polyphony in the textual network, and review it as particular foundation, which helps to build the narrative structure of the text. Polyphonic novel bases on dialogical thinking, which is logically distanced from traditional thinking, it bases also on principles of analogy, relational connections, contrasts, ambivalence. Polyphonic literature, namely Nouveau roman’s artistic discourse, arises entirely dialogic, because dialogic relationship exist between all elements of novelistic structure.Key words: Nouveau roman artistic discourse, polyphony, open text, cognitive-narrative scenography, stream of consciousness.
- Bakhtin, M 2001. “Problema Tekstu u Linhvistytsi, Filolohii ta Inshykh Humanitarnykh Naukakh”. In Antolohiia Svitovoi Literaturno-Krytychnoi Dumky Dvadtsiatoho Stolittia, edited by Mariia Zubrytska, 416-422. Lviv: Litopys.
- Eco, Umberto. 2001. “Poetyka Vidkrytoho Tvoru”. In Antolohiia Svitovoi Literaturno-Krytychnoi Dumky Dvadtsiatoho Stolittia, edited by Mariia Zubrytska, 525- Lviv: Litopys.
- Zatonskii, Dmitr2000. Modernism i Postmodernism: Mysli ob Izvechnom Kolovrashchenii Iziashchnykh i Neiziashchnykh Iskusstv (оt Sochinitelia Umberto Eko do Proroka Ekklesiasta). Kharkiv: Folio.
- “Le Trésor de la Langue Française informatise”. Analyse Et Traitement informatique de la Langue Française. Université de Lorraine. http://atilf.atilf.fr/
- Robbe-Grillet, Alain. La Jalousie. Paris: Les Editions de Minuit.
- Robbe-Grillet, Alain. La Reprise. Paris: Les Editions de Minuit.
- Sarraute, Nathalie. Disent les Imbéciles.Paris: Gallimard.
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Musiichuk Tetiana. The Communicative Situation of Indignation. – C. 104–110.
National University of Ostroh Academy
The Communicative Situation of Indignation
The article deals with the communicative situation as a form of communication process, its components and structure. The correlation between communicative situation, communicative act and discourse has been described. It is has been proved that discourse can be seen as a communicative event, a situation which integrates text with the other components, namely, extralinguistic, social and referential factors (the specific time, place, activity and people involved in communication) as well as cognitive and psychological factors that mediate the interaction of participants in communication, their motives, objectives and strategies. It has been found that an utterance of indignation is the semantic centre of the communicative situation of indignation. The author of an utterance of indignation considers himself to have a moral right to evaluate the object of indignation and express his point of view. His aim is to express a negative judgement of reality in its different manifestations (a person, phenomenon, action, event or state of affairs, etc.) in which he sees injustice. In the process of communication utterances of indignation, which are reactions to injustice, acquire characteristics of a remark-response opposing a remark-stimulus.Key words: communicative situation, communicative act, discourse, indignation, communicator.
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- Korolov, Ihor. 2009. “Movlennievyi Zhanr i Komunikatyvna Sytuatsiia: Spivvidnoshennia Poniat”. Studia Linguistica 3: 130–134. Kyiv: Kyivskyi Universytet.
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- Makarov, Mikhail. 2003. Osnovy Teorii Diskursa. Moskva: Gnozis.
- Maslova, Valientina. 1990. “Kommunikativnyi Podkhod k Probliemie Emotivnosti Teksta”. Kommunikativnyie Aspekty Znacheniia,148–156. Volgograd: Volgogradskii Gosudarstviennyi Pedagogicheskii Universitet.
- Matsko, Liubov, and Kalyta, Oksana, and Povorozniuk, Svitlana. 2015. Komunikatyvna Linhvistyka. Kyiv: Natsionalnyi Pedahohichnyi Universytet imeni M. P. Drahomanova.
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- Yashenkova, Olha. 2011. Osnovy Teorii Movnoi Komunikatsii. Kyiv: Akademiia.
- Jakobson, Roman. 1980. The Framework of Language. East Lansing: University of Michigan Press.
- Runehouse, Jamroar. The Devonshire Ducks and the Mystery of Devonshire Hall. https://www.amazon.ca/Devonshire-Ducks-Mystery-Hall-ebook/dp/
Pavliuk Alla, Rohach Oksana. Motovational Differences in Learning Foreign Languages. – C. 111–115.
Pavliuk Alla, Rohach Oksana
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Motovational Differences in Learning Foreign Languages
The article deals with the analysis of the main motivational factors that influence the ways of learning foreign languages. Taking into consideration modern processes of globalization, tendencies to the internationalization of business activities, scientific research, provision of educational services, cooperation in the spheres of culture and religion, foreign language acquisition plays one of the key roles in the development of the modern world. The main reasons for learning a foreign language are the following: school curriculum, personal growth and development, integration into the world community, cognition of a new culture, and foreign language for specific purposes (professional, academic and scientific). Motivation is one of the main factors of success that is why pupils/students who have a strong desire to learn a foreign language will learn it anyway. Scholars call motivation an inner driving force due to which students achieve their set goals: short-time goals and long-time goals. Long-time goals are connected with such desires as to get education, to be able to communicate with the members of a target foreign language community. Short-term goals can include such components as a desire to pass a final test, to finish a module or topic. Motivation can be divided into two categories: external which is connected with the factors outside a classroom, and internal which depends upon what is happening in the classroom. As a rule, external motivation is subdivided into integral (when students want to integrate into a cultural community of a target language) and instrumental (a target language is used as an instrument for achieving and fulfilling certain goals). A very powerful factor which influences a success of a student in a foreign language acquisition is his previous experience in learning a language. That is why if it was positive then it will enhance the achievement of an effective result. In this context a propaedeutic function of the Esperanto is very relevant. Its learning as the first foreign language does not only multiply the positive results of a foreign language acquisition but creates a positive attitude of students to a foreign language learning in general. A success in learning a foreign language depends on the relationships between a teacher and a student and the climate in the classroom, methods of teaching, correlation between the results and difficulties of the tasks.
Key words: motivation, motivational differences, foreign language, method of teaching, success.
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Panchenko Viktoria. Innovative Technologies in Teaching English to University Students. – C. 115–120.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Innovative Technologies in Teaching English to University Students
The article considers the importance of the innovative technologies in foreign languages teaching process and proves that they are extremely relevant, facilitate the optimization of learning a foreign language and require overall constructive solution and implementation. In the focus of attention is the analysis of innovative forms and methods of teaching English to university students. The article contributes to understanding of the most important issues of the problem under consideration and offers insights into the essence of innovative technologies, laying emphasis on the definition of the peculiarities of implementing them into teaching and learning English at university. The author concentrates on the analysis of the most effective innovative forms and methods used in the process of studying English at the university. In the article the content of innovation and innovative technology notions are considered; the most important their characteristics and types are highlighted on the basis of the analysis and selection of the most productive of them for teaching English. The selected by the author interactive methods of teaching English to university students are described in the article. In the conclusions to the article the author suggests some effective ways and forms to ensure the constructive solution of the problem under discussion and to make it beneficial for teaching and learning English at university.Key words: innovation, educational technology, innovative technology, interactive technology, interactive teaching methods, teaching English to students of universities.
- Alfimova, D. V. 2000. “Іnnovatsiina Osvitnia Systema Vyshchoi shkoly: Shliakhy Vidrodzhennia”. In Pedahohichni Innovatsii: Idei, Realii, Perspektyvy, edited by L. I. Danylenko, et al., 158–160. Кyiv: Lohos.
- Auzina, M. О., and Vozina, A. M. 2003. Іnnovatsiini Protsesy v Osviti. Lviv: Lvivskyi Bankivskyi Instytut, Natsionalnyi Bank Ukrainy.
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- Burkova, L. V. “Klasyfikatsiia Pedahohichnykh Innovatsii yak Element Mekhanizmu Upravlinnia Innovatsiinym Protsesom v Osviti”. In Pedahohichni Innovatsii: Idei, Realii, Perspektyvy, edited by L. I. Danylenko, et al., 231–238. Кyiv: Lohos.
- Halatsyn, K. O. 2012. “Umovy Formuvannia Komunikatyvnoi Kultury Studentiv Vyshchykh Tekhnichnykh Navchalnykh Zakladiv”. Molod i Rynok 7 (90): 144–147. Drohobych: RVV «Kolo».
- Halytsia, Іhor, and Halytsia, Oleksander. 2011. “Innovatsiini Mekhanizmy Aktyvizatsii Pedahohichnoho i Naukovoho protsesiv”. Vyshcha Shkola 7/8: 31–37.
- Hrechanyk, B. V. 2010. “Innovatsiinyi Potentsial Vitchyznianykh Vyshchykh Navchalnykh Zakladiv: Osoblyvosti ta Problemy Yoho Formuvannia”. Investytsii: Praktyka ta Dosvid11: 24–27.
- Dychkivska, І. М. 2004. Innovatsiini Pedahohichni Tekhnolohii. Кyiv: Akademvydav.
- Malashevska, К. О. 2009. Eksperymentalna Prohrama Formuvannia Komunikatyvnoi Kultury Maibutnikh Inzheneriv. Lutsk: Volynskyi Natsionalnyi Universytet Imeni Lesi Ukrainky.
- Pometun, О., and Pyrozhenko, L. 2002. Interaktyvni Tekhnolohii Navchannia: Teoriia, Praktyka, Dosvid. Кyiv: А.S.К.
- Reshetnik, T. S. 2014. “Innovatsiini Tendentsii u Metodytsi Navchannia Inozemnykh Mov”. Visnyk Psykholohii i Pedahohiky 14. http://www.psyh.kiev.ua/Решетнік_Т.С._Інноваційні_тенденції_у_методиці_ навчання_ іноземних_мов. 2016.
- “Innovatsiinyi Rozvytok Vyshchoi Shkoly: Ukraina – sered Pershykh abo Vidstaiuchykh?” Komsomolskaia Pravda v Ukraine, 232. http://www.istu.edu.ua/pro-mntu/publikaciji-v-zmi/innovaciinii-rozvitok-vishchoji-shkoli/
- Samsonova, O. V. 2012. “Uprovadzhennia Innovatsii v Systemu Vyshchchoi Osvity”. www.ifnmu.edu.ua/images/stories/docs/statti_movoznavstvo/7.doc.
Pasyk Liudmyla, Rys Larysa. Nominal Metaphorical Compounds as a Particular Type of Compound Word Nomination. – C. 120–128.
Pasyk Liudmyla, Rys Larysa
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Nominal Metaphorical Compounds as a Particular Type of Compound Word Nomination
This article presents a discussion of a type of nominal composition in modern German which has received very little investigative attention – nominal metaphorical compounds which are formed by the interaction of compounding processes and metaphorical transfer. In this paper metaphorical compounds are defined with precision and are distinguished from other types of nominal compositions. Their varieties are identified on the basis of the metaphorical use of the first or second constituent or of the noun compound as a whole. The relationship between the immediate constituents of nominal metaphorical compounds and the denominated items are analyzed, as well as ways of verbalizing the associative connection between the object which is denoted and that which is used for comparison, in the nominative structure of nominal metaphorical compounds. A description is given of the basic morphological word formation models of nominal metaphorical compounds in modern German and their semantic features, and the implementation of the nominative, cognitive and pragmatic functions of metaphorical compounds is reviewed. The type of noun compounds which were analysed provides evidence that the described compounding models are productive word formation processes in the modern German language.Key words: noun compound, nominal metaphorical compound, the first immediate constituent, the second immediate constituent, metaphor.
- Teliya, Veronika. 1986. Konnotativnyi Aspekt Semantiki Nominativnykh Yedinits. Мoskva: Nauka.
- De Knop, Sabine. 2003. “Die Rolle des Textes bei der Interpretation von metaphorischen Neubildungen”. Deutsche Sprache 31 (3) : 250–262.
- Fleischer, Wolfgang. Barz, Irmhild. 2007. Wortbildung der deutschen Gegenwartssprache. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
- Skirl, Helge. 2010. “Kompositummetaphern – semantische Innovation und textpragmatische Funktion”. de. http://www.metaphorik.de/sites/www.metaphorik.de/files/journal-pdf/19_2010_skirl.pdf
- Zinken, Jörg. “Imagination im Diskurs: Zur Modellierung metaphorischer Kommunikation und Kognition“. PhD diss. http://bieson.ub.uni-bielefeld.de/volltexte/ 2004/483/
Rozvod Elina. Mythological and Symbolic Significance of the Concept SUN as the Main Form of Sociocultural Expression of Being of the American Ethnos. – C. 128–134.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Mythological and Symbolic Significance of the Concept SUN as the Main Form of Sociocultural Expression of Being of the American Ethnos
The article considers a number of approaches to the definition and expression of the mythological significance of the concept SUN and establishment of the symbolic features of mythologeme in the linguistic map of the world used by the native speakers of English. Each linguocultural community has some worldviews which exist in the form of collective representations which are passed from generation to generation in the form of myths, archetypes, symbols and certain patterns of behavior. All these concepts are related to the mythological picture of the world that contains the basic concepts common to the native speakers of English and which are the foundation of their cultural identity and existence. Myth is not a separate part of life – it goes through every sphere of the human life, and most of all – a national culture. Symbols are characterized by the cultural memory, which comes from the time when a mythological conceptualization of the world was basic for a person. Accordingly, these mythological features are the key features of each linguistic picture of the world. Unlike the concept in the traditional sense, mythological concepts (myths) reflect the vague knowledge about the mythological conceptualization of the world and wordviews. Myths are also quite unstable: during their existence, they can be created, transformed, and sometimes disappear, depending on the cultural and historical context and environment in which they exist. Myths may be a part of the general culture and reflect the overall specificity of mythological thinking which is preserved in the ethnic community.Key words: myth, mythology, symbol, ethnos, representation, national linguistic mapping of the world.
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Sadova Halyna. Instant Actions in Modern English: Achievements vs Semelfactives. – C. 135–140.
Ivan Franko National University of Lviv
Instant Actions in Modern English: Achievements vs Semelfactives
The article focuses on two aspectual classes of predicates: achievements and semelfactives. The approaches to their differentiation are quite controversial. In the history of linguistics semelfactives were treated either as a subclass of achievements or activities. The article argues that they constitute an independent aspectual class. The examples from the British national corpus illustrate and ground the observations made in the course of the analysis.
Semelfactives and achievements are defined as telic, stageless events. The telicity of the achievement class lies in their ability to denote an event of change whereas the telicity of semelfactives is explained by their natural atomicity. Since the semelfactive verbs do not denote a change they can be summed into one singular iterative event (S-summing operation). The stages of this event are lexically accessible. This fact differentiates them from the class of activities.
A semelfactive verb may denote both an action of single occurrence and a multiplicative action. Light verb constructions, due to the presence of a pronominal modifier, eliminate this ambiguity.
An instant action can be expressed by accomplishments and even states depending on the context. The default aspectual class of a predicate changes under the influence of context: an aspectual coercion takes place.Key words: aspectuality, telicity, iteration, semelfactive, achievement, accomplishment, activity, state.
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Semeniuk Tetiana. The Tactic of Involvement of Iconic Means in the Realization of the Strategy of Drawing Attention in the German Advertisement of Consumer’s Goods. – C. 140–145.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
The Tactic of Involvement of Iconic Means in the Realization of the Strategy of Drawing Attention in the German Advertisement of Consumer’s Goods
Communicational impact on the addressee is the essential part of the advertising communication and it is done through use of strategies and tactics. The strategy of drawing attention as one of the most important strategies of advertisement is realized through verbal, non-verbal and para-verbal means. The strategy of drawing attention includes such tactics as: 1) involvement of iconic means in the semiotic space of text, 2) involvement of pictograms and ideograms in the advertising texts and 3) involvement of visual equivalents of verbal tropes (visual metaphors, metonymies, hyperboles etc.). The most effective means of drawing attention in German advertising texts of consumer’s goods are the iconic elements, such as the photographs of potential consumers (including the authorities) and advertised goods.Key words: advertisement, strategy, tactic, drawing attention, iconic means, photographs.
- Issers, Oxana. 2008. Kommunikativnyie Strategii i Taktiki Russkoi R Moskva: LKI.
- Medvedeva, Elena. 2003. Reklamnaia Kommunikatsyia. Moskva: Editorial URSS.
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- Götz, Dieter, Haensch, Günther, Wellmann, Hans. 2008. Großwörterbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Berlin–München: Langenscheidt Verlag.
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Siryk Ludmila. Russian Poets-Symbolists in Evaluation and Translations by Ukrainian Neoclassics. – C. 146–153.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Russian Poets-Symbolists in Evaluation and Translations by Ukrainian Neoclassics
The subject of an investigation is the poetry of Russian poets-symbolists of “Silver age” translated by Ukrainian neoclassics in the 20th of the XX century. Reasons of interest by neoclassics of Symbolist poetry as well as their attitude as to Symbolizm itself, the process of creative relationship between Russian and Ukrainian literature are examined. According to the neoclassics point of view Symbolism had a great influence on the development of Ukrainian poetry .High artistic level, symbolism of characters, innovation and precision of forms, ethical dimension of the anthropological perspective and humanistic orientation of Symbolist poetry were extremely impressive. Clarifying achievements and civil poetry samples of Russian Symbolism neoclassics as literary critics and translators used its aesthetic, poetic, stylistic and civil forms. The main characteristic features of translators strategies of such neoclassics as Pavel Filipovich and Yuriy Klen when translating such representatives of Symbolism as Valery Bryusov and Alexander Blok were analyzed. The analysis found that their translations were very close to the text, especially as to the forms, symbolism of characters, idea and theme content. Their translations are very accurate and at the same time highly artistic. The poetry under the analyses is characterized by civil and spiritual freedom, classical ideal of beauty in social and artistic understanding, protest against immorality, utilitarianism and limitations.Key words: Russian Symbolists, Ukrainian neoclassics, literary criticism, poetry, translation, artistic strategy.
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Smalko Liudmyla. English Children`s Literature: Modern Trends in Themes and Narrative Strategies. – C. 154–162.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
English Children`s Literature: Modern Trends in Themes and Narrative Strategies
This research seeks to identify the main trends and themes in children’s literature, and determine how narrative devices and srategies are used in the modern literary works for children. In this paper, using analytical and synthetic methods of scientific investigation and the main principles from structural narratology, the specifics of children’s literature in the light of the genre classifications have been explored. These specifics are considered in terms of themes, motifs, genres and selection of literary characters. It has been found out that the subject of Children’s Literature is at the advantages of form, language and ways of presentation the artistic material. The author proves that contemporary children’s literature is characterized by facinating thematic richness and a great variety of layers. Texts peculiarities of the composition and narrative of literary works aimed at children show their simplicity and the dominance of the actions and characters in action. The emphasis is laid on the novelty of themes, such as violence, bulling, war, alienation, and the narrative techniques seeking to entertain children and educate them about the fundamentals of life, arouse their interest to reading.Key words: children’s literature, genre, naratology, narrative strategy, fantasy, fiction, mashup literature, fractured tales, themes.
- Zaitseva, Kateryna. 2015. “Naratyvni Modeli v Suchasnii Dytiachii Literaturi (na Materiali Ukrainskoi, Biloruskoi Prozy)”. PhD dis., Kyivskyi Natsionalnyi Universytet Imeni T. Shevchenka.
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- Blezza Picherle, S. 2004. “L’albo illustrato. Immagini, significati, sensi”. Poche storie… si legge!, supplemento al n. de Il Pepeverde 20: 66–69.
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- Mitts-Smith, Debra. 2010. Picturing the Wolf in Children’s Literature. London: Routledge.
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- Nikolaieva, Mariia. 1997. Introduction to the theory of Children’s Literature. Tallin: Tallinn Pedagogical University.
- Nikolaieva, Mariia. 2006. “Picture book”. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children’s Literature 3: 247–251. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Nikolaieva, Mariia, and Scott, C. 2000. “The Dynamics of Picturebook Communication”. Children’s Literature in Education 31 (4): 225 – 239.
- Nikolaieva, Mariia. 2005. Aesthetic Approaches to Children’s Literature. Lanhammd: Scarecrow.
- Nikolaieva, Mariia. 1996. Children’s Literature Comes of Age: Toward a New Aesthetic. New York: Garland.
- Nimon, Maureen. 1993. Violence in Children’s Literature Today. Dreams and Dynamics. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship, 22: 29–36. Adelaide, Australia.
- Shalahinov, B. 2013. “Children’s literature: the concept of historical periodization”. Word and Time, 8.
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Smolnytska Olha. Translating the Concepts Expressed in Secular Lyrics by Selected Female European Government Leaders of the Tenth to Sixteenth Centuries (Using English and Gaelic Poetry as Source Material). – C. 162–172.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Translating the Concepts Expressed in Secular Lyrics by Selected Female European Government Leaders of the Tenth to Sixteenth Centuries (Using English and Gaelic Poetry as Source Material)
From a contextual standpoint, an overview is given of the motifs and symbols which form the base of secular lyrics written by tenth- to sixteenth-century government leaders, especially of Britain and Ireland. The poetological, microcontextual, Translation Studies, cultural analysis is made. First of all, selected poems by Elizabeth I Tudor and medieval Irish female poets have been translated into Ukrainian, and anonymous female folk of Scotland is analyzed. The principles of lyrics by Elizabeth I of England and Mary Stuart are compared. Because of the isolation of cultural continuity the lyrics of the latter poet is compared with the work of Scottish female authors in female songs (“waulking songs”). By means of of comparative analysis the problems of gender and the marriage relationship are illustrated by the person of The Wife of Bath (in the Middle English original – “A good wif was ther of biside bathe”) (“The Canterbury Tales” by Geoffrey Chaucer) as a typical heroine of her time, a leader and a talented narrator. Her view is compared to the lyrics of queens – those of Ireland (Gormlaith) and Scotland (Mary Stuart). The context of Irish scels is given. The heroines of these scels have poetic talent and a right of self-expression. Some examples are: Deirdre, Sin, Scáthach, Fe(i)delm, and real fili Liadaine. The character of Mary Stuart’s poetry is analysed, as well as her pattern of governing. Her connection with the Celts is given; however, historical fact shows that the queen had Romance origins, rather than Scottish ones. One of the arguments for this thesis is the first Ukrainian translation of her sonnet (by Lesya Ukrainka, who, like others, knew about Mary of Scotland only through French sources). The article has theoretical and practical value.Key words: translation, poet, female leader, Elizabeth I of England, Mary Stuart, Gormlaith.
- Blum, Harold. 2007. Zakhidnyi Kanon: knyhy na Tli Epokh. Kyiv: Fakt.
- Smolnytska, Olha, trans. 2012–2013. Vybrani Virshi Irlandskoi Korolevy Gormlait (Х stolittia). Z Osobystoho Arkhivu Olhy Smolnytskoi.
- Smolnytska, Olha, trans. 2012–2013. “Mairg darab galar an grádh” – “Kokhannia – Prykra Khvoroba” of Isibeul ní Mhic Cailín. Serednovichna Irlandska Poeziia (XV stolittia.). Z Osobystoho Arkhivu Olhy Smolnytskoi.
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Stanislav Olga. The Syntactic Cohesion as a Reflection of Cultural Epoch Paradigm (Based on M. Prust’s “Stream of Consciousness”). – C. 172–177.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
The Syntactic Cohesion as a Reflection of Cultural Epoch Paradigm (Based on M. Prust’s “Stream of Consciousness”)
The research offers the point of view on the problem of syntactic cohesive connectedness of expression of the text in modern French language. On the material of fragments of M. Proust’s novel “In Search of Lost Time” the author of the article argues that the syntax of the stream of consciousness of its associativity, chaotic, mental leaps, border subjectivity dismemberment syntactic structures and their associations in a continuous “stream” at the same time, characterized by an original cohesive connectedness. It is noticed, that in the structure of stream of consciousness, syntactic structures renovate constantly, acquire new values and forms of expression. It was established that in stream of consciousness means there are no explicit and no implicit methods of cohesion that correlate formally with parts of expression play a key role at binding of sentences in an integral structure. The results of exploration argued that decisive at the cohesive binding of sentences are the associative systems of characters in the stream of consciousness. Reasonably, that in French literature the stream of consciousness cohesion is on the new stage of its dynamic development. The analysis of the material shows that a syntactic cohesion in literature of modernism (stream of consciousness, in particular) is correlated with such principles of cultural paradigm, as intuition, allogism, subjectivity, associativity and others like that.Key words: internal speech, stream of consciousness, syntactic cohesion, imagery, associativity, intuition.
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Khirotchynska Olga. Phonetic Peculiarities of Modern French. – C. 178–183.
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Phonetic Peculiarities of Modern French
This article deals with the tendencies of the sound composition of the language on the base of the research of the accent and the intonation of the territorial and the social dialects and functional varieties of the language. Analyzes works devoted to the study of dialect peculiarities of the intonation. Generalizes the theoretical information about the sound composition of the language and the intonation that are discussed in the special French scientific literature. Determinate the modifications of phonetic norm of modern French language, dialect intonation peculiarities in a particular register of language and certain social groups. Follows functional changes of the intonation. Explains the relation between the accent and the intonational peculiarities of regional dialects. Attention is drawn to the rhythm, accent distribution, tempo and length variations, to the dependence of rhythmic groups of semantic and syntactic combinability phrase parts, speech tempo, the degree of preparedness and the text maturity of extra-linguistic situation, the degree of the emotional expression color. Studies the dependence of the rhythmic groups length of the type of speech, of pauses impact on the speech tempo. Analyzes the spontaneous dialogue in different linguistic registers.Key words: іntonation, accent, speech, melodics, rhythm, pronunciation, melodic interference, sociolect.
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Chernetska Nadiia. Slangy Metaphorization as Means of Creative Speech’ Potential Realization in a Student Spanish Language Environment. – C. 183-189.
Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University
Slangy Metaphorization as Means of Creative Speech’ Potential Realization in a Student Spanish Language Environment
The metaphoric utterances which are presented in scientific article are peculiar methods to take a closer look at the Spaniards and especially at Spanish students and at the culture of Spain in general. It is interesting and intriguingly not only for scientist who investigate the peculiarity of metaphor’s using in the speech of the Spanish language environment, but for everyone who study Spanish or who just like it. Attention has been devoted to the peculiarities of formation and development of social dialects in the Spanish language environment and in the language culture in general. The theoretical substantiation of reciprocal terms’ palette for denomination of lexical repertory of youth groups in native and foreign sociolinguistics has been given. Attention has been paid to the source of the problem. The reasons of scientific research’s relevance of the students’ jargons state and their components are outlined as well. Reference has been made to the subject, object and tasks of this research. The article deals with such variations of sociolect as argot and jargon. The specificity of their usage in speech has been characterized as well as their common feature. The contents of the terms “argot”, “jargon” and “slang” are revealed. The matter of metaphor as the sphere of informal speech has been described and the base model of slangy metaphorization that concludes in grouping of the impossible has been investigated. The formation of speech with the help of metaphor in the Spanish language environment has been examined (on the materials of sayings and proverbs that are collected by G. Coreas in the miscellany of J. S. Paso). Examples of the metaphoric expressions in Spanish language that are concerned with the students’ language environment have been given. The spheres of usage and the functions of the students’ argotic expressions and loan words have been determined. Examples of the apocope and loan words have been given. The peculiarities of historical development of the students’ language have also been described, taking into account the main aspects of the students jargon. The status of the social dialects has been revealed.Key words: sociolect, jargon, argotic expression, slang, metaphor, slangy metaphorization, the Spanish language environment.
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