2015-3

Загальна інформація

Номер 1

Статті

  1. Титул.
  2. Зміст.
  3. Світлій пам’яті професора Марії Олександрівни Олікової присвячується. – C. 5–6.

    23 лютого 2016 минуло чотири роки з дня смерті нашої дорогої колеги Марії Олександрівни Олікової, кандидата філологічних наук, професора, завідувача кафедри прикладної лінгвістики Східноєвропейського національного університету імені Лесі Українки. Значна її роль в історії нашого університету й інституту іноземної філології зокрема, неоціненним є вклад у розвиток сучасної лінгвістичної думки.
    На перший погляд, звичним був її життєвий шлях як особистості, викладача та науковця, але яка багата її спадщина, скільки сил, енергії й таланту вона віддала справі свого життя!
    Марія Олександрівна Олікова народилася 23 вересня 1941 року в м. Краків (Польща) в інтелігентній родині. Трудову діяльність розпочала в 1965 р. по закінченні факультету іноземних мов Львівського державного університету імені І. Франка. Спочатку працювала асистентом кафедри англійської філології Луцького педагогічного інституту ім. Лесі Українки (який згодом було реорганізовано у Східноєвропейський національний університет ім. Лесі Українки), потім – навчання в аспірантурі. У 1973 р. закінчила аспірантуру при Київському державному інституті іноземних мов і перша на факультеті захистила кандидатську дисертацію на тему «Обращения в современном английском языке (опыт структурно-семантического и социолингвистического анализа)». Після захисту кандидатської дисертації повернулася на рідний факультет, стала доцентом кафедри англійської, а згодом і завідуючою. Пройшла всі етапи професійного зростання викладача: від асистента до завкафедри.
    У 2001 році, завдяки ґрунтовному науковому доробку, значній кількості підготовлених аспірантів, високому професіоналізму, Марія Олександрівна отримала вчене звання професора кафедри англійської філології. У 2006 році, на прохання адміністрації університету та у зв’язку із обранням за конкурсом, стала завідувачем кафедри прикладної лінгвістики, керівництво якою здійснювала до останніх днів життя. Читала теоретичні курси зі стилістики, теорії і практики перекладу, соціолінгвістики, cучасних лінгвістичних течій, а також мала досвід викладацької діяльності за кордоном. На запрошення ректорату Вищої професійної школи (м. Замосць, Польща) читала практичний курс англійської мови, керувала дипломними проектами.
    Марію Олександрівну відзначили численними державними нагородами: почесними грамотами інституту, університету та міської ради, Верховної Ради України, Міністерства освіти і науки України, вона була відмінником народної освіти.
    За час роботи в університеті мала унікальні можливості пройти стажування у провідних вітчизняних та закордонних вишах: Кембриджський університет (Велика Британія), університет штату Мериленд (США), Московський державний університет ім. Михайла Ломоносова, Московський інститут іноземних мов ім. Моріса Тореза, Київський національний університет ім. Тараса Шевченка, Інститут ім. Джона Кеннеді в Берліні.
    На рідному факультеті романо-германської філології (нині – інститут іноземної філології) Марія Олександрівна заклала основи перекладацьких студій, очолювала наукову школу з гендерної лінгвістики. Вона – талановитий дослідник, вихователь цілої плеяди молодих учених. Завжди обирала сміливі теми, розкривала глибокі ідеї та віднаходила нові перспективи дослідження. Під її керівництвом захистили кандидатські дисертації й отримали підтвердження шість аспірантів (Л. М. Киричук, О. М. Тарнавська, А. П. Карпчук, А. А. Семенюк, А. С. Гошилик, А. Л. Палійчук). Марія Олександрівна була офіційним опонентом кандидатських дисертацій з проблем гендерної, комунікативної, функціональної лінгвістики, прагматики, стилістики, дискурсології, міжкультурної комунікації.
    У доробку Марії Олександрівни – більше 80 наукових праць. Серед них – навчальні посібники англійською мовою з грифом Міністерства освіти і науки України: «Теорія і практика перекладу», «Соціолінгвістика», «Словник соціолінгвістичних та етнолінгвістичних термінів».
    Маючи за плечима значний досвід роботи завідувача, вона була професійним керівником, яка вміло акумулювала в собі вимогливість, акуратність, логічність у роботі й розуміння, делікатність та щирість у спілкуванні з колегами, аспірантами і студентами. Завжди приємно вражала чуйність та небайдужість Марії Олександрівни до проблем і потреб оточуючих, готовність прийти на допомогу, а вміння щиро порадіти за досягнення інших вселяло віру в подальший успіх.
    Раціональний підхід у всьому, професіоналізм у роботі переплітався з внутрішньою вразливістю та порядністю, що викликало повагу серед колег не лише університету, якому вона присвятила своє життя, але й цінувалося в наукових колах Сум, Харкова, Києва, Львова та інших міст.
    Немилосердна смерть обірвала життя Марії Олександрівни, проте у наших серцях вона назавжди залишиться людиною виняткової інтелігентності, високої освіченості, представником тієї когорти, яка веде за собою інших завдяки щедрій обдарованості природою. Її гострий розум, кмітливий та багатогранний, завжди пульсував ідеями й надихав близьких і друзів, колег по роботі й аспірантів до життєвого, творчого та наукового пошуку.
    Для своїх учнів та колег Марія Олександрівна назавжди залишиться надійним другом та світлою людиною, яка щедро ділилася своїми знаннями, не шкодуючи ні сил, ні душевної енергії.
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  4. Avdeyenko Tetyana. Pragmatic Pecularities of Transmittance Discourse as a Global Speech Act. – C. 7–12.

    The article is focused on the problem of pragmatic analysis of the discourse in the indirect communication of transmittance. Transmittance communication presupposes functioning of the third participant – addressee-transmitter whose role is to pass the message from the speaker to the final addressee. The context of the above mentioned communication determines the choice of the speech units, their structure and speech act variability. The structure of transmittance discourse comprises the kernel utterance with its left and right context in their unity having the centre and periphery. Topic-comment relations are characteristic feature of this unity. Pragmatic aspect of transmittance discourse presents peculiarities of the pragmatic types, determines their variety in syntagmatics and paradigmatics. Speech act aspect of transmittance discourse presupposes its functioning as a complex speech act comprising simple speech acts-functions and kernel discourse speech act in the frame of the global speech act unity.
    Key words: transmittance communication, transmittance addressee, topic-comment structure, global speech act, discourse speech act, transmittance discourse.
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  5. Boichuk Valentina.Affective Interjections as Verbal Means of Expressing Pessimism in Modern English. – C. 12–17.
    The article highlights structural and functional features of emotional interjections of negative evaluation which are affective identifiers of pessimistic communicative behavior. The timeliness of the topic is determined by the special role of affective interjections in creating the language model of the world of a pessimistic communicant. The focus of the research on the affective interjections as verbal means of expressing pessimism in modern English creates the novelty of the work.
    Pessimism as a complex phenomenon based upon psychological, social, cognitive and emotional factors demonstrates certain specificity of its speech actualization. Pessimistic utterances are speech units which add to the explication of qualitative features that point out individual, psychological, social and cognitive aspects of the phenomenon.
    We investigate the interjections, whose potential ability to complete pessimistic utterances is determined by the use of contextual markers of pessimism, which indicate the explication of its qualitative characteristics. It is found out that one-word underived interjections and one-word derived interjections have in the structure of their lexical meanings one or a few semes of pessimism pointing out its basic, adjoining and attendant features which is a prerequisite that determines the ability of the interjections to be used in pessimistic utterances. It is proved that phrasal interjections, which demonstrate the ability to complete pessimistic utterances, are derived constructions, represented both by free and stable (phraseological) units. The pessimistic potential of affective identifiers of pessimistic communicative behavior is determined by the influence of contextual markers of pessimism on the contextually dependent meanings which form pessimistic context. It is demonstrated that emotional interjections of negative evaluation identify speech realization of the situational pessimistic accentuation.
    Key words: interjections, pessimistic utterance, pessimistic communicative behavior, affective interjections, qualitative characteristics of pessimism.

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  6. Bondar Tetiana. Non-equivalent Vocabulary: Difficulties in Translation. – C. 17–23.
    The article deals with non-equivalent vocabulary – words that do not have any full or partial equivalents among lexical units of another language. The names of English and Ukrainian authentic musical instruments belong to this group of vocabulary. Such language units always express specific features of a certain national culture. Because of this, they represent important material for cross-cultural investigations. The article outlines main reasons for non-equivalency and defines such notions as ‘cultural and national concept’, ‘accidental gap’ (also known as a ‘lexical gap’, ‘lacuna’) and ‘reality’.
    The data array that names musical instruments was obtained with the help of the method of complete sample. Comparative analysis of the names of English and Ukrainian authentic musical instruments showed that they cause difficulties while translating them into other languages as there are no equivalents in the language of translation. The names of the Ukrainian authentic musical instruments are usually translated with the help of transliteration and transcription which is followed by a detailed description or explanation. Most British authentic musical instruments do not have equivalents in Ukrainian. They are rendered by a descriptive translation or tracing, seldom transliteration is used.
    Key words: non-equivalent vocabulary, reality, accidental gap, musical instruments, transliteration, tracing.

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  7. Verbytska Anna. Cognitive Approaches to the Study of Distress in English Media Discourse. – C. 23–29.
    The article deals with the systematization of cognitive approaches to the study of emotions and ways of their application to the study of distress in English media discourse.
    The prototypical and situational nature of emotional state of distress is grounded in the frames of the theory of prototypes and the theory of conceptual metaphor. The processual / phasal rather than static character of the distress is discovered by having analyzed the partial set of categories through the definitions in lexicographic sources and distribution of the lexeme distress in word combinations taken from a corpus of American English COCA. Phases of experiencing distress include entering into the distress state – process of experiencing distress – ridding of distress. Set of categories discloses such features of distress as intensity, duration, frequency.
    Based on this evidence and the terms of cognitive-psychological approach such as “situation model” and “context model”, a methodology to the study of the conceptual structure of distress is developed. It presupposes the reconstruction of the Prototypical Situation Model of Distress and Context Models of Distress, functions and communicative strategies of their usage in English media discourse. In the paper the connection between the forwarded proposal and the experience of application of the theory of field to the study of emotion concepts is drawn. Thus, the typical / categorical / nuclear characteristics of distress compose a PSMD, and the non-typical / indistinctive or peripheral characteristics make up its contextual variations.
    Beside lexical items, conventional figurative linguistic evidence, e.g. damsel in distress, as well as non-conventional conceptual metaphors, e.g. DISTRESS IS PLAY, DISTRESS IS ACTION, DISTRESS IS LIVING BEING, DISTRESS IS HINDRANCE, DISTRESS IS MADNESS, DISTRESS IS LONELINESS take part in the process of restoring the conceptual structure of distress.
    Key words: distress, prototype, situation model, context model, metaphor.

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  8. Vorobiova Tetiana, Smalko Liudmyla. Salinger’s Narrative Strategies in Conveying the Themes of Alienation, Loneliness and Despair in the Short Story “For Esmé with Love and Squalor”. – C. 30–35.
    This article considers peculiarities of the unique style of Salinger’s short stories, several aspects of the language usage and narrative patterns aimed at speech portrayals of the characters. The paper explores the use of stylistic means and narrative strategies to convey the main themes of alienation, loneliness and despair in J. D. Salinger’s short story “For Esmé with Love and Squalor”. The authors dwell upon several aspects of the language usage and Salinger’s narrative strategies in developing these themes. The emphasis is laid on narratology as a method for analysis and interpretation of the short story themes. It has been proved that the most significant feature in Salinger’s works is the way in which his frequent use of tactile imagery leads to the development of character. This article is an attempt to analyze the accuracy of J. D. Salinger’s usage of major narrative strategies in developing the themes of alienation and loneliness. For this regard some of the most important aspects of narratology from Gerald Genette’s “A Narrative Discourse” are considered. In the focus of attention is Salinger’s uniqueness in using stylistic means of different levels and the original composition of the story which help to decode author’s message. It has been concluded that Salinger’s stories are completely founded on style.
    Key words: narratology, narrative strategies, J. D. Salinger, composition of short story, stylistic means, themes of alienation and loneliness.

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  9. Hedz Svitlana. Rhetorical Questions in Modern English: Communicative and Functional Aspects. – C. 35–41.
    This article highlights the various perspectives of domestic and foreign linguists regarding the linguistic nature of the term “rhetorical question”. The study shows that from the point of view of its formal grammatical structure a rhetorical question is no different from those questions which are intended to obtain information. Sentences which are identical in their lexical composition and syntactic structure may have a different communicative content, depending on such factors as situation, context and intonation. In our study, it is shown, for instance, how the verbal context can neutralize the interrogative meaning of sentences which are interrogative in structure. Examples taken from books by British and American writers confirm that the interrogative meaning of rhetorical questions can be weakened to such an extent that either an exclamation mark or a full stop may be used instead of a question mark. Our research has shown that in most cases rhetorical questions are characterized by an unabbreviated structure which makes them different from other types of utterances in colloquial speech. Questions of this type may lose their interrogative meaning specifically because of the fact that no elements have been omitted from their structure. The article demonstrates that the use of rhetorical questions may be an effective method for conveying persuasive arguments or for expressing strong emotions.
    Key words and phrases: rhetorical questions, interrogative meaning, situation, context, communicative and functional peculiarities.

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  10. Horot Yevheniia, Malimon Lesia. Modern Lexicography: Problems and Prospects for Further Research. – C. 42–48.
    The article enlightens the main tendencies of development of modern lexicography. The analyses of theoretical sources on lexicography made it possible to arrive at the following conclusions: lexicography is an important aspect of the language as dictionaries save the language, and no country can exist without language. Extra-lingual factors influence upon the quality of lexicographical produce. Scholars differentiate between theoretical and practical lexicography: theoretical lexicography deals with theoretical principles of compiling dictionaries while the result of practical lexicography is a piece of lexicographical work in the form of a book or a computer version. Modern lexicography is characterized by a great variety of dictionary types which are classified due to certain differential features. Compiling a dictionary includes several stages (grounding the necessity of publishing such a dictionary, defining the main characteristics and potential users of the dictionary, selecting the lexical units and working out the structure of the dictionary entry).
    Key words: lexicography, theoretical lexicography, practical lexicography, dictionary, methodology of lexicography.

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  11. Danyliuk Nina. Lingvo-Stylistic Means of Representing a Girl in the Ukrainian and English Folk Songs. – C. 48–55.
    This article deals with the lingo-stylistic means of representing a girl in the texts of the Ukrainian and English folksongs. A special attention has been paid to the rows of synonyms and variants that are used to denote a girl, differences in semantics and stylistic colouring of the components of their components. The attributes that are used to reflect the typical features of a girl – молода – young; гарна – beautiful – were paid attention to. Traditional comparisons with the names of flowers, birds, and stars that convey the evaluative content of an image of a beautiful person were pointed out. Such key words as тіло, руки, ноги, лице, очі, уста, коси, in the combination with the epithets that denote colour were analysed (білий, рум’яний, карий, русий – in the Ukrainian texts; white, red, rosy, fair – in the English). Common comparative connections that are used by the bearers of folklore while describing a girl were found out: рожа – rose, вишня – cherrу, зоря – star, терен – sloes, сніг – snow, лебідка – swan, золото – gold); while the differences were the following: калина, горлиця, перепілка, рибка – in Ukrainian, lily, diamond, ivory – in English. It was concluded that a language image of a girl contains universal features caused by the common idea of beauty in the European culture as well as the ethnically specific ones.
    Key words: Ukrainian folk song, English folk song, lingvo-stylistic means, key word, epithet, comparison, metaphor.

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  12. Dobzhanska-Knight Nataliia. Reflection of the Notion A HAPPY WOMAN/ЩАСЛИВА ЖІНКА in English and Ukrainian (Based on an Internet Search) . – C. 55–61.
    The article presents an analysis of lexical and semantic content of the Internet texts which were the results of an Internet search according to the search term HAPPY WOMAN/ЩАСЛИВА ЖІНКА, in order to define dominant semes in Ukrainian and English as lexical representations of gender values in each of the languages. Two hundred headlines found by the Google search engine in each of the languages were researched, and the most typical for each language were defined, the ones in English demonstrating the prevalence of the headlines containing the lexemes habit and how, and the ones in Ukrainian emphasizing the role of love and success. We have also analyzed fifty relevant articles in each of the languages, which summarily constitute as many as two hundred and fifty thousand characters in each language. The comparative analysis of the lexical content of the Internet texts in English and Ukrainian has shown certain common features, in particular concerning the words (equivalents) happiness, life, time, health, motherhood, and smile; and also some differences. In particular, in the Ukrainian texts the number of lexical units denoting the following values prevails over the ones in English: man, children, family, appearance/beauty, success, love, sex, pregnancy. The English texts demonstrate the prevalence of the number of lexical units denoting happiness, joy, people, positive adjectives and God. The lexical content of relevant texts reflects the deep content of the key notion, which in its turn indicates certain tendencies of the mentality of representatives of the corresponding language and culture. Semantic priorities in the Internet texts in both languages indicate the corresponding differences in gender values of the speakers of these languages.
    Кey words and phrases: a happy woman, context, Internet-search, dominant lexemes, comparison, gender.

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  13. Yefymchuk Halyna. Peculiarities of Verbal Representation of Linguocultural Concept ARROGANCE. – C. 61–66.
    The article deals with the representation of the concept ARROGANCE by lexical and phraseological means. The main features of linguocultural concepts have been considered. Based on them, the features of concept ARROGANCE have been distinguished, which allow to classify the concept as linguocultural one. As the representation of the concept by language sign is the condition of its linhguocultural qualification, the means of verbal representation of the concept in English picture of the world have been considered. Based on the analyzed lexicographical sources, the origin and meaning of basic lexeme, denoting arrogance in English have been investigated. That helps to distinguish differential semantic features of the concept. At the phraseological level the idioms and set expressions that convey the meaning of ARROGANCE have been chosen. The phraseological units have been grouped by semantic features and according to the lexical units constituting them. The performed analysis of verbalization of the concept ARROGANCE allows to determine the characteristic features of the concept in English picture of the world and outline prospects for further investigation.
    Key words: linguocultural concept, verbal representation, picture of the world, lexeme, and phraseological unit, concept ARROGANCE.

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  14. Zhulinska Maia, Smoliar Nataliia. Conceptual Morbial Metaphor in Modern German Political Discourse. – C. 66–74.
    The article deals with the phenomenon of morbial conceptual metaphor in modern German political discourse. Functions of conceptual metaphor are underlined. It is determined that metaphors from output sphere “Unhealthy body” conceptualize different social and political phenomena and processes which take place in Germany and European Union. In the article final conceptual sphere “Politics” is regarded as any kind of public social relations.
    Structural semantic features of morbial metaphoric model are analysed with the help of frame analysis in the article. It is found out that it is explicated in a discourse by the following four frames: “Patients”, “Illnesses”, “Causes of illnesses”, and “Means and ways of treatment”. Main slots are distinguished within each of the frames and their lexical filling is described. Actualization of morbial metaphor in modern political German discourse is investigated. The reasons for the activation of studied metaphoric model and increased usage of political metaphor are described. It is considered that frame “Means and ways of treatment” is represented by the most widely spread slot structure and takes the first place according to the frequency of its actualization in modern German political discourse.
    Key words: cognitive, morbial metaphor, metaphoric model, frame, slot, discourse.

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  15. Karpina Olena. Linguistic Identity: its Systemic Components and Operation. – C. 74–78.
    Anthropocentric study has made the term “linguistic identity” of high importance. The investigation of the phenomenon of linguistic identity occupies a leading position in domestic and foreign linguistics. The notion of linguistic identity affects all the aspects of language study and simultaneously destroys the boundaries between disciplines that study a man, because a man can not be studied beyond the language. The article is devoted to the study of linguistic identity and its structure. The origin of the term, its meaning, the main structural components of linguistic identity are considered. The author has determined linguistic identity from the standpoint of its operation, its verbal behavior. Its invariant and variable components are highlighted. Based on the current classifications the system of linguistic identity is presented as a complex multilevel paradigm that is exposed to external influences and is ready for transformation at every level of its organization. It is established that despite the interconnectedness of levels, some extra-additional information related to language socialization and acceptable in a society stereotypes is required for all-embracing investigation of the given notion. The attention is focused on the communicative aspect that has enabled the linguistic analysis of the terms “communicative identity”, “speech identity”, “homo loquens” as the aspects of the complex and multi-faceted phenomenon of linguistic identity. The comparative analysis of the definitions of these notions was undertaken including the notion of communicative identity, which some scholars identify with the notion of linguistic identity, considering it from the perspective of its verbalization in speech. Linguistic identity is an indvidual that has a certain amount of knowledge who understands and realizes himself in speech activity. This phenomenon is paradigmatic and multilevel. Speech identity can be considered the element of this paradigm that functions as a communicative identity. The notion investigated is a social phenomenon, because the linguistic identity is the bearer of the collective consciousness.
    Key words: linguistic identity, communicative identity, homo loquens, patterns of behavior, speech activity, communicative passport.

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  16. Kinakh Liliana, Kozak Sophia. Frame Structures that Characterize Personages in Fictional Discourse. – C. 79–83.
    In recent years we can observe increasing interest of the scientists to the processes of formation, existence and transfer of human knowledge. Especially the scholars in the fields of artificial intelligence and cognitive linguistics try to create such structures which could represent encyclopaedia data about certain objects and situations. One of the main structures of this sort is a frame. Frames are important for any type of discourse. Being actualized and mobilized by an author, frames form a discourse, define its quality and pragmatics.
    The present research paper covers the important problems of the cognitive linguistics, namely the questions of the functioning of the characterizing frame structures in a fiction literary discourse. The frame structures, that represent the frame “Character” in the German fictional discourse, have been analyzed. In the present research the frame is considered a structure of dual nature – of the cognitive and the linguistic ones. The differentiation between the terms “frame”, “frame structure”, “terminal” and “terminal element” has been made. The analysis of the terminal elements (fillers) that represent the terminals of the frame “Character” has been carried out and the peculiarities of functioning of the corresponding frame structures in the German fictional literature discourse have been studied. The investigation carried out has shown that the terminal elements as well as the frame structures play an important role in perception and understanding of the discourse content because they function as means of the connection between the linguistic elements, provide thematic coherence and thus contribute to the adequate interpretation of the author’s intentions.
    Key words: character, frame, frame structure, terminal, terminal element, discourse.

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  17. Lavrynenko Oleksandr. Functioning of Associative Memory Mechanism in the Process of Foreign Language Words Semantization. – C. 84–90.
    The complexity of cognitive process of foreign language words perception and memorization is described and reasoned. The author describes the principal difference between native and foreign language learning processes. In the empirical part of this research two important aspects in the cognitive functioning of human mind by the perception of meanings of new lexical units are examined and analyzed. The mentioned process is reflected as the part of general activity in foreign language teaching. The first practical paradigm of this research presents the search of most convenient functional relation between right and left human brain parts for foreign language lexical units’ perception. The second practical paradigm of this research is dedicated to the description of synesthesia phenomenon and its influence to the process of creation of cognitive connections between physical objects of reality and their verbal analogues in the human mind. The researcher managed to define the interesting fact, that functional equality between the left and right parts of human brain can be regarded as the most convenient condition for the effective memorization of foreign language lexical system. The second important result is the practical validation of the synesthesia phenomenon and it’s influence on the process of new nominations creation for unknown objects. The work out of methods, which could make the described phenomenon to serve as the supporting mechanism for learning of foreign lexical units, would be a good perspective for future researches.
    Key words: cognitive process, lexical unit, foreign language, logical thinking, image thinking, synesthesia, vowels, consonants.

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  18. Leshchuk Yulia. Semantic Features of the Neutral Language in a Poetic Text of Paul Celan. – C. 90-95.
    The article deals with the peculiarities of stylistically neutral words, namely verbs «trinken», «schlafen», «schweigen» and «schwimmen» in poetic texts of a German-Jewish poet Paul Celan. The reasons for such a study are outlined in the article: the poetic text of Paul Celan is a hermetic poem, that represents a coded system of mental framework of the poet, his artistic and aesthetic consciousness and ways of conceptualizing of reality.
    Hermetic poem is characterized by the absence of language clichés, linguistic skepticism, experiment with the form of verse, a violation of logical connections between the elements of the poetic text. Stylistically neutral words gain new meanings in a literary text; these meanings are relevant only in the poetic context.
    In order to understand hermetic texts of Paul Celan interpreter has to take into consideration the notion of “parallel codes”, the words, that are components of the mutual communication of poet’s texts. Stylistically neutral verbs «trinken», «schlafen», «schweigen» and «schwimmen» can be defined as “parallel codes” in poetic texts of Paul Celan, since they are frequent and contribute to decoding of implicated meanings in the poems.
    Key words: stylistically neutral words, actualization, parallel code, extra-linguistic reality, individual author’s metaphor.

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  19. Maziar Olga. Lesia Ukrainka’s Drama in the Context of French Classicism. – C. 95-99.
    This article deals with Lesia Ukrainka’s drama and its link with the ancient drama and the bent for traditions of French classical tragedy. Fixing the tragedy forms in the context of Ukrainian neoclassicism takes place in this writer’s works. The influence of classicism is observed in Lesia Ukrainka’s dramas, but unlike her predecessors, the author creates strong and active characters who compete with the society, with the forces of fate, who challenge the fate. Classical drama doesn’t develop the psychology of a person, cosmic forces are faced in tragedies, but in Lesia Ukrainka’s works the inner world of the characters is skillfully depicted, that’s why, for example, a punishment for characters’ rash acts is apprehended as logical and completely understandable. In such details it is seen the writer’s aspiration to keep up with the times and to combine the classical signs with the romantic paradigm in her works.
    Key words: Lesia Ukrainka’s drama, a neoclassicism, French classical drama, a classicism, a dramatic nature, a tragedy.

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  20. Machulska Kateryna. Lexico-Grammatical Means of Communication Strategies and Tactics Realization in the Advertising Slogans. – C. 100-104.
    This article is an attempt to describe the lexico-grammatical means of communication strategies and tactics realizations in advertising slogans. Materials for the study are advertising slogans of the English online stores. It has been mentioned that means of communication aim implementation are on different linguistic levels, such as lexicological, syntactic, semantic.
    We take into account that there are explicit and implicit methods of intention representation. Explicit means formally expressed aim and implicit means formally not expressed aim.
    There the using of nouns (proper names and common nouns), adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, sensory vocabulary in the implementing of communicative intention has been mentioned. It was determined that the tactic of goods or services naming and the tactic of target group mentioning are realized with common nouns; tactic of ambiguity/polysemy of the expression plan, content and references is realized with adverbs and definite and indefinite pronouns, also personal pronouns are used to express the tactic of appealing to consumers; the tactic of organization’s advantages and exclusivity demonstrating is often realized with superlatives – the superlative degree of adjectives comparison; the tactic of company’s competencies, values, traditions and experience emphasizing is realized with numerals.
    Moreover it has been noticed that the sensor lexicon is used in several tactics. The examples of audible, visual and kinesthetic representative systems have been demonstrated.
    There is a prospective to study means of communication tactics realization on other linguistic levels.
    Key words: lexico-grammatical means, communicative intention, communicative tactics, slogan, explicit method, implicit method.

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  21. Navrotska Iryna. The Problem of Polysemy and Homonymy in the System of English Noun. – C. 105-112.
    This article focuses on the treatment of polysemy and homonymy in monolingual and bilingual dictionaries in the system of English noun and includes some theoretical and practical aspects of the procedure of distinguishing between these phenomena disclosed in the PhD thesis of the author. Delimitation of meanings within the system of English noun in form of qualitatively different lexical semantic elements: metaphors, lexical semantic variants, syncrets, heterosemes and homonyms is dependent on the nature of metonymic shift or metaphorical transference or specificity of connotation. Ambiguous, heterosemous and homonymous elements, obtained in course of this analysis, should be further investigated with distributional-componential criterion based on distributional modelling and frequency of occurrence in the corpora.
    We have previously made a chart of the nouns in which polysemy and homonymy are delimited differently in the four dictionaries mentioned below. It also includes the nouns with heterosemous meanings – meanings which are potentially homonymous but not actually ones. They are context-sensitive hybrids that are hardly ever highlighted in dictionaries. Thus, we have analysed certain ambiguously treated meanings of 353 selected nouns selected from four dictionaries to make this chart for comparison. The meanings of the nouns are marked as lexico-semantic elements.
    The analysis has shown the bulk of lexico-semantic elements pertaining to the category of lexical semantic variants, to be more precise, they constitute 37,3% of the selected elements, syncrets (including metonymy) – 31,6%, homonyms – 13,9%, heterosemes – 9,9%, functional transferences (metaphors) – 7,09 %, respectively.
    Distributional analysis was carried out on the basis of corpus resource, elabourated by Sharoff et al., namely the concordance interface to compare the frequency of usage of the meanings of nouns in corpora which is a very important factor facilitatating the process of disambiguation. Most frequent models, such as N+N and A+N, show higher results of homonymy occurrences. We have also revealed a regularity which implies that homonymy identifiers which appear in one model will appear in other models extrapolated onto the system of noun meaning. Moreover, homonymous units usually have specific context environment not typical of polysemous units that are usually more numerous and thus less complex.
    Key words: polysemy, homonymy, heterosemy, concordance, frequency.

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  22. Nizhegorodtseva-Kyrychenko Larysa. Personification of Mental Concepts. – C. 112-117.
    The article presents a brief excursus of linguistic and cognitive reasoning concerning the personification of the basic lexical units of the lexical-semantic field “Intellectual activity”. The article also summarizes the relationship between metaphorical shift and personification.
    Personification is a subtype of the metaphor, the essence of which is to express the transfer of characteristics of a living object to an inanimate object. At a very early stage of development of consciousness, preceding even the myth, man builds the image of the world by transferring his initial impressions and sensations to unknown objects. Thus, it can be noted that the personification emphasizes the relationship of a man to the world as a living being.
    The article also highlights the universal mechanism of personification that relates ideas, abstractions and inanimate objects with human nature, character, or feelings; representation of imaginary beings or things like having a human character, intellect and emotions. In the focus of analyses there are verbalized concepts of mind, memory, thought, soul, spirit, wisdom, which constitute the basic parcel of lexical-semantic field “Intellectual activity”.
    Key words: lexical-semantic field, cognitive linguistics, intellectual activity, verbalized concept, personification.

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  23. Pavliuk Miroslava. Paraverbal Communication Means (Based on the German Language). – C. 118-124.
    The article analyses paraverbal means of communication, delineates the differences between paraverbal and non-verbal means and the connection between them. Paraverbal means of communication are those which can manifest themselves through language (oral and written speech), i.e., the strength or power of the voice, its timber, the tempo of speech, distinctness/clarity of sound, peculiarities of articulation, intonation, the length of pauses etc; indispensable graphic characteristics: handwriting, density of lines, spacing between words or letters, punctuation, dominating means of singling out components of the communicative structure of a sentence (the topic and the comment), etc. Paralinguistic means not only complement the content of speech communication, but they are also a source of information about a person, his or her social and age features, character, etc. For the analysis of verbalization of oral speech we have used the text of the play Mother Courage and Her Children by Bertold Brecht. Based on the analysis of 75 lexical units denoting paraverbal means we have singled out four lexical unit groups, namely: lexemes verbalizing the loudness of the voice; lexemes verbalizing the acoustic properties of the voice; lexemes rendering emotions and attitudes of the characters by means of the voice; and lexemes used by the author to render “casual” sounding of the voice. By “casual” we mean remarks accompanied by the character’s additional actions which affect the sound of the voice. Paraverbal communication means also include the figuration of written speech. The article analyses a handwritten poem. Peculiarities of handwriting, such as the pressure of the pen on the paper, the line consistency, the linking of the letters in the words, the slant of the handwriting, the size of the letters, the roundedness of the letters, the signature, the spacing between the words and the lines, etc., point to different physical, mental and emotional characteristics of a person.
    Key words: communication, verbal means, non-verbal, means, paraverbal means, verbalization, phonation, handuriting.

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  24. Pasyk Lyudmyla. Concept as an Object af Research of Cognitive Linguistics. – C. 124-128.
    In present-day cognitive linguistics the notion of concept is one of the most widely used and controversial, its content varies in different scientific schools and has got a variety of interpretations by individual scholars. Today the category of concept appears in the studies of philosophers, logicians, psychologists, linguists and so on.
    In the Brief Dictionary of Cognitive Terms the concept is defined as “an operational meaningful unit of memory, mental lexicon, conceptual system, brain language, and the whole picture of the world reflected in the human mind” [5].
    For the first time the term “concept” was used by S. A. Askoldov Alexejev in 1928. D.S. Likhachov used this term to refer to the generalized cognitive unit, which reflects and interprets the phenomena of reality, depending on education, personal experience, professional and social experience of a native speaker [6].
    A.P. Babushkin considers the concept as a discrete mental unit which reflects the object of real or imaginative world and is kept in the national memory of native speakers in the verbalized form [2].
    The main definitive features of the concept are following V.I. Karasik such as evaluative, notional and figurative components.
    Basing on the analyzed actual material we have drawn such conclusions: the definition of the concept is worked out – concept is a multidimensional notional dynamic formation, which has evaluative, conceptual and figurative components. For their expression is all the majority of lingual and non-lingual means needed, which can directly or indirectly illustrate, specify or extend its content. Based on the analyzed material the perspectives of the future researches are determined.
    Key words: cognitive linguistics, concept, conceptosphere, definitive models, cognition.

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  25. Potapenko Lilia. Word Play in the Letters of Anton Chekhov as the Tekst-Forming Factor. – C. 129-134.
    Now humane science needs a precise definition of the term “word game”. Considerations on this subject can be found in the works of Polish researchers Anna Wierzbicka, Marta Wolos, Aleksy Awdieiew and Grazhyna Habraiska, Aldona Skudrzykowa and Krystyna Urban, Tadeusz Szczerbowski and others.
    Analysis of Chekhov᾿s private letters allows you to show the range and multiplicity of manifestations of fun with the word and meaning. It aims to systematize common examples of word games. For the word game I include all treatments that cause other than usus and standard means of expressing certain content, as well as those that lens new content while maintaining or changing old form.
    Detailed typology kinds of word games, drawn from a Polish study of this phenomenon, include ephemeris, pun, amphibologies, anagram, antanaklasis, antimetabole, etc.
    As it turned out, a kind of wordplay most frequently encountered in the letters Chekhov is creating of ephemeris otherwise ‒ the occasional neologisms.
    The frequency of use and the diversity of the original word-formation types, paraphrasing with “fun” used to obtain a certain perlocutive effect allow recognizing the word-play as an important text-forming factor which shows the originality of the writer’s individual style. The analysis of Chekhov’s letters can be the basis for drawing the conclusions on the ways of revealing the hidden potential of a word and be an interesting material for illustrating some manifestations of word-play.
    Key words: language play, word-play, text-forming factor, individual style, ephemerides, blending, phraseological unit.

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  26. Rohach Оksana. Xenophobia and National Stereotypes. – C. 134-139.
    This article is devoted to the studies of international relationships and an analysis of ethnic ‘portraits’ that find their reflections in national stereotypes and in a universal phenomenon which is called xenophobia. The research of the processes of verbalization of national/ethnic stereotypes and xenophobia in national languages requires a multivectoral approach because such words and phrases belong to the emotional and sensitive layer of vocabulary. Their analysis must not only be done on a serious linguistic level but with the respect of moral and ethical norms of research. Such an approach is necessitated by the fact that the studies include such topics as national dignity and national identity on the one hand, and on the other they are connected with the verbal representation of the attitude of one ethnic community to another which are very often derogatory. A subjective evaluation of the characteristic of stereotypes causes generalization at the expense of the particulars, and can not give accurate characteristics of denotata. At the same time a fundamental desire to create reduced characteristics of ethnic communities does exist and finds its reflection in a language in general and in its set expressions and idioms in particular. National stereotypes vary a lot from one ethnic community to another and there are very few nations whose national ‘portraits’ would be the same. Many of the existing stereotypes are xenophobic – the illogical fear of foreigners – which must be studied and explained in order to avoid international and ethnic clashes and to improve cross-cultural communication.
    Key words and phrases: ethnic community, xenophobia, national stereotype, set expressions and idioms.

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  27. Rohach Yulia. Structural Pragmatic Peculiarities of the Language of Newspapers. – C. 139-145.
    This article is devoted to the structural pragmatic analysis of the language of modern Australian newspapers which is conducted from on the basis of the structural composition of a newspaper text, and the role and place of a headline in it. Lexical, phraseological and syntactic peculiarities of the structure of the newspaper texts of different genres were taken into account as well. A special attention has been paid to such inseparable component of the language of modern newspapers as multimodality, which is the usage of units of various sign systems on the level of a newspaper, in a separate column or article, advertisements and their headlines. Such distinctive features of the language of newspapers as the usage of the Simple Present tense of the verb instead of the Simple Past, infinitive instead of the Future Tense, lexical abbreviations and shortenings, elliptical sentences, inversion were pointed out. It was found out that it is typical for the language of newspapers to have many references to the authorities, well-known people and places because such references make the newspaper articles more precise and accurate. At the same time this method requires from the readers a certain level of background knowledge. A special accent has been made on the analysis of the structural peculiarities and manipulative pragmatic potentials of headlines. A headline performs very important tasks at the very first stage when a reader looks at the newspaper – it draws his attention and makes him interested in the material. It becomes possible thanks to the realization of the expressive, nominative and advertising functions that are implemented graphically. Besides this, a very important role of a headline is to make a reader read a newspaper text. This role is realized through an informative function as it is in the headline where the content of a newspaper text and its sense are condensed. As modern newspaper texts are characterized by polyphony, hybridity and a composition complexity, a modern headline is semantically deep and communicatively and functionally polysemantic. From the point of view of pragmatics, newspapers’ headlines are externally focused. In modern mass media an influence on a person, his emotional and intellectual spheres are considered to be the main tasks of a headline, that is why every headline does not only convey a piece of information but is shows an attitude of the author towards the content of an article, information or advertisement and towards the facts given in them.
    Key words and phrases: a language of newspapers, structural pragmatic peculiar features of a newspaper text, headline, multimodality, functions.

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  28. Rozvod Elina. Types of the Concepts and its Classification in Modern Linguistics. – C. 145-151.
    This article deals with the basic unit of the modern cognitive linguistics – the concept. A special attention has been paid to the variety of concepts, their classifications, ways of organizing them, and structural features. It is noted that while studying the concept from the linguocultural point of view, it is analyzed as a mental formation, as a part of the conceptsphere of a certain ethic community, as a fragment of the national linguistic map of the world that belongs to the worldview of the native speakers. Linguocultural concepts belong to the units of mentality, to the categories with the help of which a national character is described. The investigation of the linguocultural concept is carried out in several stages. The first stage is the analysis of the lexical meaning and inner form of the key word, which represents the concept. At the second stage the synonyms of the main lexeme are reproduced – the representatives of the concept. The third stage is the description of the methods of the categorization of the concept in the national linguistic map of the world. At the fourth stage, ways of conceptualizing conducted by the reconsideration of the appropriate lexeme are identified, and the study of the conceptual metaphor or metonymy is done. A special attention has been paid to the final, fifth stage at which a scenarios’ research is carried out. A scenario is viewed as an event that takes place in space, implies the existence of a subject, object, objectives, time and place of an action.
    Key words: concept, linguoculture, linguistic map of the world, verbalization, representation.

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  29. Semeniuk Olena. Semantic Ambiguity of the Lexical Units Formed by Adding Prefix Auto- (on the basis of the French Language). – C. 151-156.
    The article is dedicated to the study of semantic ambiguity of the lexical units with prefix auto-. And in particular which processes and consistencies lead to the fact that while communicating a person understands and differentiates the semantic meaning, which this or that word obtains by adding suffix auto-.
    During the course of investigation there have been discovered four meanings which this prefix may carry, namely: as a contraction to automobile, bus; as a contraction to automatic; as a component with the meaning “self”, derived from the words of the Greek origin; and finally as a stem equal to the separate word auto.
    It has as well been established that in both Ukrainian and French languages groups of words with prefix auto- are homonymous.
    It has been characterized that dictionaries provide only two semantic meanings to the semantic field of prefix auto-: if it originates from Greek “autos”, it has the meaning of “self” and is connected with the possessive determinant which is related to the subject. And the second meaning given to prefix auto- by dictionaries is – an “automobile”.
    Having analyzed lexical units with prefix auto- in nine editions of Petit Larousse and Petit Robert and having taken into account the four fundamental parts of speech, noun, adjective, verb, and adverb, there has been identified a significant surge in the number of nouns, a rise in the amount of adjectives, a slight increase of verbs and a complete stagnation of adverbs.
    By studying dictionaries and comparing lexical units through independence of the stem, to which the prefix is connected, it has been identified that prefix auto- most frequently binds with the stems that are regarded as independent units. This way the prefix not only increases its productivity, but is also better perceived in its form and semantic meaning by a listener.
    Key words: a lexical unit, prefix auto-, derivation, semantic field, derivational productivity.

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  30. Siryk Ludmila. The Artistic and Civil Position of the Ukrainian Neoclassics: between the European East and the West. – C. 157-165.
    The civil-art position of the Ukrainian Neoclassics in the 20-th years of the XX century between the European East and the West is considered at the article. On the basis of the scientific – art material of neoclassics is determined, that the position isn’t single -valued and original. The East and the West as the political categories are considered negative (because of their antihuman and colonial character), but in the sphere of the cultural categories – as the equal parts, based on the European cultural tradition’s axiology. The neoclassic demonstrated the desire to unite the European culture, divided on the East and West, and they underlined also the positive role of the culture in the cognitive, educational, outlook, historical, ethical and political aspects. The component of the position add such priorities as rule of the variety in unity, the superiority of the traditional, universalism, patriotism and the superiority of the esthetic – ethic criterions in the literature and art phenomena estimation. Through the prism of their position is seen the conception, in which the group of actual problems is raisen (of the background of the creator, of the identity of the nation, of the system of values of the Ukrainian society and the european community), and also the ideas : in details of the cultural community of the European nations, the unity of the variety, the fight for the rights of the national culture and of the creative personality on the independent development (the independent of somebodies interference and restrictions), of the equality of the international cultural links in the multinational world.
    Key words: Ukrainian neoclassic, literature, cultural orientation, East, West, europeism, universalism.

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  31. Smal Oksana. Pragmatic Peculiarities of Knowledge Representation in Contemporary English Lecture Discourse. – C. 165-171.
    The article covers the main features of pragmatic peculiarities of knowledge representation in contemporary English lecture discourse. Communicative and pragmatic means were distinguished and characterized in a contemporary English lecture discourse, with a help of which the influence of the author-lecturer on the student-reader is made. Reference has been made to the lecture discourse ability to attract, retain and manipulate the reader’s attention. Linguistic units that logically combine one sentence with another and also one part of the lecture material with the next one are defined. The use of different features of discourse markers at various stages of the lecture is determined. The way of knowledge representation is analyzed for maximum perception effect of information provided in the written lecture fixations. Reference has been made to the use of questions by the author during the whole lecture in order to keep the reader’s attention and to see how attentively the student read and study the lecture material. Attention has been devoted to the means of exemplification which are widely used by the lecturers and are irreplaceable in every written English lecture. A quantitative frequency analysis of the use of means of the student-reader’s attention attraction is done, according to which the most frequent are means of opposition and discourse organization that promote the release of primary and secondary information, the clarification of lecture material, its successful explanation.
    Key words: communicative and pragmatic means, lecture discourse, discourse marker, information, attention.

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  32. Tryhub Halyna, Khnykina Oksana. The Peculiarities of Verbal Professional Communication. – C. 171-177.
    The article targets at the main peculiarities and specific features of professional communication. The concept of professional communication has been suggested. Its goals and objectives have been highlighted. Basic factors that determine the course and peculiarities of professional communication have been described. The analysis of professional intercourse has made it possible to single out personal, informative аnd communicative factors. The main functions that characterize professional communication have been distinguished: instrumental, integrative, self-expressive, translational, function of social control, function of socialization, expressive. The reasons of conflicts between communicants in the course of professional communication have been characterized. Different communication schemes have been analyzed to determine the basic characteristics of professional communication. Essential attention has been devoted to the role of terminology in the professional environment. The importance of the principles of cooperation for successful professional communication has been highlighted.
    Key words: professional communication, conflict, information, terminology, the principles of cooperation.

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  33. Fedetska Yulia. Principles of Selection of the Concept “Fatherhood” Nominative Field in Modern English. – C. 177-183.
    The research is made in the context of linguistic cultural conceptology, the main principle of which is as follows: language is a means of organizing and transferring the men’s knowledge and notion about the world; linguistic view of the world is inseparably connected with the conceptual view of the world, the men’s activity and the culture of the nation. It enables the researcher to penetrate into the depth of the national mode of thinking. The main principles of selecting the nominative field are as follows: 1) language as a communicative component of culture is the treasury of national culture; 2) lexical semantic system of the language functions as a means of discretion and systematization of information continuum; 3) the model of the world coded with the help of the language performs a function of preserving and transferring the national consciousness, spiritual and cultural traditions of the nation; 4) the nominative field is a structural group of lexical units, a lexical-semantic paradigm, a set of language means which actualize semantic characteristic features of the object of analysis and form the notional basis of the concept; 5) the main means of the nominative field description is the word; here also belong derivatives which are connected with the main means of actualization of the concept through word-formation, free word-combinations, set expressions, paramias, dictionary entrees, contextual synonyms, structural schemes of sentences, texts.
    Key words: linguistic cultural concept, nominative field, linguistic view of the world, conceptual view of the world, lexical semantic system of the language.

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  34. Yatskiv Nataliia. The Creative Works of Jules and Edmond Goncourt in the French Literary Study. – C. 183-188.
    [Згорнути]
    The article, dedicated to Goncourt brothers, deals with the reception of the writers’ literary heritage in the French literary study and defines the main criteria evaluation. Cultural and historical methods that are used in the study allow to examine the reception of the writers’ literary works in chronological order and to define their role and place in cultural and artistic atmosphere of the middle of XIX century. The detailed analysis of French critical reception of Goncourt brothers’ literary works showed that from the beginning of the end of XIX century French critics stressed on the writers’ innovative character of prose, distinguishing their “artistic writing” as one of the main achievements of their originality and talent. The critics define romantic backgrounds of Goncourt’s outlook; analyze their role in the appeal to actual problems of reality, usage of “human documents” and their influence on the formation of naturalistic poetics. However, Goncourt brothers never stuck to the rules of any of literary schools, despite being the founders of these schools. It is difficult to talk about the influence of naturalism and impressionism in the writers’ literary work, because they are the founders of these tendencies, using them to emphasize aesthetic expressiveness. Scientific novelty includes the works of the French literary study that help identify Goncourt’s stylistic peculiarity – “artistic writing”. The article is of great help to comparative schools concerning Goncourt’s literary work, defining its influence and typological similarities with the literary works of Ukrainian writers of the beginning of XX century, who paid attention to the development of French literature.
    Key words: realism, naturalism, impressionism, reception, “artistic writing”.
  35. Відомості про авторів.

Бібліографія

  1. Авдєєнко Т. Прагматичні особливості ретранслятивного дискурсу як глобального
    мовленнєвого акту
    / Т. Авдєєнко // Актуальні питання іноземної філології. – 2015. – № 3. – С. 7-12
  2. Бойчук В. Афективи як вербальні засоби вираження песимізму в сучасній
    англійській мові
    / В. Бойчук // Актуальні питання іноземної філології. – 2015. – № 3. – С. 12-17
  3. Бондар Т. Безеквівалентна лексика: труднощі перекладу / Т. Бондар // Актуальні питання іноземної філології. – 2015. – № 3. – С. 17-23
  4. Verbytska A. Cognitive Approaches to the Study of Distress in English Media Discourse / A. Verbytska // Актуальні питання іноземної філології. – 2015. – № 3. – С. 23-29
  5. Vorobiova T., Smalko L. Salinger’s Narrative Strategies in Conveying the Themes of Alienation,
    Loneliness and Despair in the Short Story “For Esmé with Love and Squalor”
    / T. Vorobiova, L. Smalko // Актуальні питання іноземної філології. – 2015. – № 3. – С. 30-35
  6. Гедз С. Риторичні запитання в сучасній англійській мові: комунікативно-функціональний аспект / С. Гедз // Актуальні питання іноземної філології. – 2015. – № 3. – С. 35-41
  7. Гороть Є., Малімон Л. Сучасна лексикографія: проблеми й перспективи / Є. Гороть, Л. Малімон // Актуальні питання іноземної філології. – 2015. – № 3. – С. 42-48
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