2015-2

Загальна інформація

Номер 2

Статті

  1. Титул.
  2. Зміст.
  3. Biskub I., Begal О. Realization of the Coherence in the Dialogue between Human and Virtual Interlocutor. - C. 12-18.

    This article is devoted to cognitive aspects of coherence which have influence on its realization with their further implementation in automatic dialogue systems modeling. The cognitive processes and components which ensure reaching the coherence in a dialogue are examined and characterized.
    We have focused our attention on the in-depth studies of such linguists as R. Dooley, S. Levinsohn, M. Gernsbacher, T. Sanders, R. Tomlin, T. A. van Dijk, W. Labov, J. Waletzky, and W. L. Chafe.
    A crucial role of the so-called “orientation section” and mental representations in constructing semantically and pragmatically coherent dialogue interaction is emphasized. It has been proved that the “orientation section” helps to prepare an interlocutor for active perception and to acquaint him with contextual aspects of the interaction, while the accurately structured knowledge representation forms a thematically well-organized basis for the relevant establishment of the relations.
    The results of the research suggest the ways of optimizing the functioning of automatic dialogue systems. Consequently, the components which are essential for reaching the dialogue coherence have been modeled for virtual interlocutors, implementation of which in the development of the linguistically competent chat-bot made it possible to achieve the natural and coherent dialogue communication between the human and the machine.
    The linguistically competent virtual interlocutor, which has received the name of “Joseph Linguiston”, is able to maintain a dialogue about linguists of different periods and fields, their works and the main concepts they deal with. All of the data is represented in the form of hierarchical tree ontology with associative links.
    On the basis of the analysis which was conducted, we can draw the conclusion that it is possible to improve the communicative competence of automatic dialogue systems by the application of the “orientation section” and well-organized knowledge representation.
    Key words: coherence, dialogue, virtual interlocutor, “orientation section”, mental representation, modeling.
    References:
    1. Chafe, Wallace. 1994. Discourse, Consciousness, and Time: The Flow and Displacement of Conscious Experience in Speaking and Writing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    2. Dooley, Robert, and Levinsohn, Stephen. 2001. Analyzing Discourse: A Manual of Basic Concepts. Dallas: SIL International.
    3. Dooley, Robert. 2007. Explorations in Discourse Topicality. Dallas: SIL International.
    4. Gernsbacher, Morton Ann. 1985. “Surface Information Loss in Comprehension”. Cognitive Psychology 17: 324–363.
    5. Grice, Herbert Paul. 1975. “Logic and Conversation”. In Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 3: Speech Acts, edited by Peter Cole and Jerry L. Morgan, 41–58. New York: Academic Press.
    6. Labov, William and Waletzky, Joshua. 1967. “Narrative Analysis: Oral Versions of Personal Experience”. In Essays on the Verbal and Visual Arts, edited by June Helm, 12–44. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.
    7. Sanders, Ted J. M., and Gernsbacher, Morton Ann. 2004. “Accessibility in Text and Discourse Processing”. Discourse Processes 37(2): 79–89.
    8. Tomlin, Russell S., and Forrest, Linda, and Pu, Ming Ming, and Kim, Myung Hee. 1997. “Discourse Semantics”. In Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction, vol. 1: Discourse as Structure and Process, edited by Teun Adrianus van Dijk, 63–111. London: Sage Publications.
    9. Van Dijk, Teun Adrianus. 1984. “Dialogue and Cognition”. In Cognitive Constraints on Communication. Representation and Process, edited by Lucia Vaina and Jaakko Hintikka, 1–17. Dordrecht, Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company.

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  4. Bondarchuk O. The pecularities of Topos-Analysis. - C. 27-30.
    The article deals with Topos-Analysis as the element of Frame-Analysis. The term “Topos” has an ancient philosophical tradition and is related to the rhetoric, stylistics and culture of speech. The argumentation was considered as a technical activity used for persuading the recipient of the speaker`s righteousness. The high interest of the Topos is noticed in the end of XX century by H. Johnston, S. Tulmin. From the viewpoint of German scientists (Kienpointner, Korperschmidt, Funken, Faulstich, Wengeler, Ziem) Topos is a structure which runs through linguistic units at the text level and joins them to the discursive unity. Frame-Analysis is carried out at semantic level, that is why Topos-Analysis is a necessary addition to it. Topos-Analysis enables the investigation of the implicit pre-conditions expressed in the text. The research material is a book “Casual Aussteigerin” by Heike Langenkamp. To persuade the recipient of the right way of life which differs from the generally accepted norms the author uses such Topoi: Topos of decision, Topos of ascetic life, Topos of cranks, Topos of wilderness, Topos of the new beginning, Topos of love to nature, Topos of definition. Topoi are expressed by argumentative standards as if-than-formulations or formulation of causal subordinate clauses. Topoi fill those slots which are implicit in the frame are not filled with the proper fillers. Topos-Analysis explains the investigated type of Aussteiger in the system of values: lonelyness, peace, simple life, life in the nature wich differs it from the other types.
    Key words: Topos, Topos-Analysis, discourse, frame, argumentative standart, slot, default-coefficient, Aussteigerin.
    References:
    1. Bogolepova, Svetlana. 2013. “Formiruyushchee Otsenivanie v Praktike Prepodavatelya Inostrannogo Yazyka”. http://lomonosov-msu.ru/archive/Lomonosov_2013/2168/14033_c077.pdf.
    2. Sheverun, Nadiia. 2013. “Osoblyvosti Otsinyuvannya ta Sertyfikatsiyi Navchalnykh Dosyahnen Studentiv z Inozemnykh Mov v Universytetakh Polshchi”. http://www.lnu.edu.ua/Pedagogika/periodic/ukrpol3t/tom1/45_ sheverun.pdf.
    3. Sherstyuk, L. V. 2010. Realizatsiya Tekhnolohiyi Kompleksnoyi Dyferentsiatsiyi Navchannya Inozemnykh Mov Studentiv Nefilolohichnykh Spetsialnostey Vyshchykh Navchalnykh Zakladiv: Metodychni Rekomendatsiyi. Mykolayiv: Vyd-vo ChDU Imeni Petra Mohyly.
    4. Black, P., and Wiliam, Dylan. 1998. “Assessment and Classroom Learning”. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice 5/1: 1–65.
    5. Dodge, Judith. 2009. 25 Quick Formative Assessments For a Differentiated Classroom. Scholastic Teaching Resources.
    6. Marshall, Bethan. 2007. “Assessment in English”. ITE English: Readings for Discussion. http://www.ite.org.uk/ite_readings/assessment_20071130.pdf.
    7. Stiggins, Richard J., and Arter, Judith A., and Chappuis, Jan, and Chappuis, Stephen. 2009. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing It Right-Using It Well. Allyn & Bacon.
    8. Torrance, H., and Pryor, J. 1998. Investigating Formative Assessment. Teaching, Learning and Assessment in the Classroom. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    9. Tuttle, Harry Grover, and Tuttle, Allan. 2013. Improving Students’ Foreign Language Speaking Through Formative Assessment. Routledge.

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  5. Bovda O., Nifaka T. Techniques for Language Acquisition. - C. 22-26.
    The article explores the notion of technique in teaching foreign languages. It is defined as a simple methodical act which provides the realization of the teacher’s educational objective in class. The term is claimed to entail activity, task and exercise. Activity is a broader term, with task applying to a separable element of a lesson, which is primarily geared to practicing language presented, usually involving students working with each other, and which has a specific goal. The classification of the activities depends on the following factors: 1) degree of teacher’s control, 2) categories of use, 3) main types of interaction activities, 4) practice and communicative activities. Their activity types are specified. Task is treated as the basic unit of action. Some distinctions have been drawn between exercises (focused on noticing and developing aspects of the form of language) and tasks (focused on integrated use of language). To develop accuracy and fluency in communicative competence both of them are recommended. The most frequently used way of categorizing tasks is stated to be according to four macro-skills, six activity-types and higher order thinking skills. Tasks characteristics (information structure, recycling, convergence) are given.
    Key words: technique, teaching, foreign language, activity, task, exercise, communicative competence, characteristic.
    References:
    1. Chaudron, C., and Valcarcel, M. 1988. Second Language Classrooms: Research or Teaching and Learning. New York: Oxford University Press.
    2. Hamer, Geremy. 2001. “The Practice of English Language Teaching”. Longman Handbooks for Language Teachers.
    3. Rivers, W. M., and Temperley, M. S. 1987. A Practical Guide to the Teaching of English as a Second or Foreign Language. New York: Oxford University Press.
    4. Ur, Penny. 2008. A Course in English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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  6. Chendey N. Cognitive and Psycholinguistic Aspects of Metaphor as a Basis of Author’s Conceptual System- C. 198-204.
    The article is dedicated to the study of cognitive and psychological nature of metaphor and modes of its elaboration in Byron’s poetry. It is important to distinguish the way we conceive metaphorically from the way a poet expresses such thoughts in his language. General conceptual metaphors are not the unique creation of individual poets, but are rather part of the way members of a culture have of conceptualizing their experience. Poets, as members of their cultures, naturally make use of these basic conceptual metaphors to communicate with their audience. In addition to elaborating conventional metaphor, a poet goes beyond the normal use of conventional metaphor to point out and call into question the boundaries of our everyday metaphorical understandings of important concepts. The attempt has been made to prove that any literary text reflects author’s individual conceptual system, created by his artistic imagination and embodied with purposefully selected language means. Being a preferable language means in a precise poetic text, metaphor brings to the fore the importance of studying modes of its elaboration which reveal author’s individual choice of image presentation. As far as a novel metaphor is created and transmitted by an image, it undoubtedly appeals to emotions and text perception. Therefore, the image has a special status, “intermediate” between the verbal and nonverbal aspects of metaphorical expression. It has also been emphasized that poetry represents some artistic space in which metaphors undergo modifications and turn into complex poetic images. Thus, metaphor is fairly considered to be a core element in author’s individual conceptual system and style.
    Key words: metaphor, modes of elaboration, author’s individual conceptual system, idiostyle.
    References:
    1. Arutiunova, Nina. 1990. “Metafora i Diskurs”. In Teoriia Metafory, edited by Nina Arutiunova, and M. Zhurinskaia, 5–32. Мoskva: Progress.
    2. Bashliar, Gaston. 2004. Frahmenty Poetyky Vohniu. Kharkiv: Fоlіо.
    3. Bieliekhova, Larysa. 2002. Slovesnyi Poetychnyi Obraz v Istoryko-Typolohichnii Perspektyvi: Linhvokohnityvnyi Aspekt (na Materiali Amerykanskoi Poezii). Кyiv: Vydavnychyi Tsentr КNLU.
    4. Vorobiova, Оlha. 2004. “Kohnityvna Poetyka: Zdobutky i Perspektyvy”. Visnyk Kharkivskoho Natsionalnoho Universytetu Imeni V. N. Karazina 635: 18–22.
    5. Maslova, Valentina. 2007. Vvedeniie v Kognitivnuiu Lingvistiku. Мoskva: Flinta; Nauka.
    6. Nikonova, Vira. 2005. “Indyvidualno-Avtorski Metafory yak Zasib Obraznoho Modeliuvannia Svitu ta Problemy Perekladu”. Problemy Zistavnoi Semantyky 7: 419–425. Кyiv: Vydavnychyi Tsentr КNLU.
    7. Ortega-i-Gasset, Khose. 1990. “Dve Velikiie Metafory”. In Teoriia Metafory, edited by Nina Arutiunova, and M. Zhurinskaia, 68–82. Мoskva: Progress.
    8. Pavlychko, Solomiia. 2001. “Bairon. Narys Zhyttia i Tvorchosti”. Zarubizhna Literatura: Doslidzhennia ta Krytychni Statti, 153–270. Кyiv: Vydavnytstvo Solomii Pavlychko “Оsnovy”.
    9. Rikyor, Pol. 1990. “Metaforicheskii Protsess kak Poznaniie, Voobrazheniie i Oshchushcheniie”. In Teoriia Metafory, edited by Nina Arutiunova, and M. Zhurinskaia, 416–434. Мoskva: Progress.
    10. Byron, George Gordon. 1979. Selections From Byron. Lyrical Verse. Moscow: Progress Publishers.
    11. Freeman, Margaret H. 2000. “Poetry and the Scope of Metaphor: Toward a Cognitive Theory of Literature”. In Metaphor and Metonymy at the Crossroad: A Cognitive Perspective, edited by Antonio Barcelona, 253–283. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
    12. Freeman, Margaret H. 2002. “The Body in the World: A Cognitive Approach to the Shape of a Poetic Text”. In Cognitive Stylistics: Language and Cognition in Text Analysis, edited by E. Semino, J. V. Culpeper, 23–48. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamin’s Publishing House.
    13. Gibbs, Raymond W. 1999. The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language and Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    14. Hester, Marcus B. 1964. An Analysis of the Meaning of Poetical Metaphor. London.
    15. Lacoff, George and Johnson, Mark. 1980. Metaphors We Live by. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    16. Lacoff, George and Turner, Mark. 1989. More than Cool Reason: a Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    17. Stockwell, Peter. 2002. Cognitive Poetics: an Introduction. London; New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
    18. Tsur, Reuven. 1992. Toward a Theory of Cognitive Poetics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

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  7. Gordienko Y. Foreign Language as Means of Formation of Future Teacher’s Pedagogical Tolerance. - C. 46-52.
    This article deals with different scientific approaches to the definition of the concepts of “pedagogical tolerance” and “tolerant relationships”. The combination of the high level of professionalism and personal features, tolerance in particular, is a demand for the professional training of specialists at higher school. The importance of the search for effective means of the formation of future teachers’ pedagogical tolerance has been stated in the article. Foreign language is basic among those means. The pedagogical potential of this discipline has been defined particularly for this purpose. Foreign language teaching is resourceful not only for the perception of the target language culture, but it creates possibilities for studying human’s life in its social variety. The article demonstrates the possibilities for using the principles of tolerance in practice at the lesson of English. A part of the lesson, described in the article, has been devoted to the definition of personal and professional values and their importance for future pedagogical activity. Tolerance should be formed on the basis of active cooperation between a teacher and students. Attention has been devoted to the creation of such atmosphere at the lesson which can lead to academic excellence in combination with students’ personal development. Tolerant teachers respect their students’ opinions and form models of tolerant behaviour in a group by means of different problematic situations. Pedagogical tolerance has been defined as an obligatory part of professional competence of a future teacher, who is able to perceive judgements, lifestyles, appearance and behaviour of the subjects of educational process without aggression, establishing tolerant relationships on the basis of trust, cooperation, joy, empathy, compromise, and psychological comfort.
    Key words: pedagogical tolerance, tolerant relationships, foreign language, tolerant teacher, problematic situation.
    References:
    1. Volkova, E. V. 2002. “Prostranstvo Simvola i Simvol Prostranstva v Robotakh Yu. M. Lotmana”. Voprosy Filosofii 11: 149–164.
    2. Danyliuk, S. S. 2004. “Neverbalni Zasoby Komunikatsii v Anhlomovnykh Elektronnykh Tekstakh”. Movni i Kontseptualni Kartyny Svitu 10: 121–134.
    3. Yermolenko, L. Yu. 2005. Piktohrafichni ta Ideohrafichni Znaky u Suchasnii Frantsuzkii Movi. Kyiv: Vadym Karpenko.
    4. Kriuchkov, H. H. 2004. “Orfohrafika Suchasnoi Frantsuzkoi Movy”. Naukovi Zapysky 13: 148–159.
    5. Kriuchkov, H. H. 1987. Sovremennaia Orfografiia Frantsuzkogo Yazyka. Kyiv: Vyshcha Shkola.
    6. Sytdykova, I. V. 2002. “Problema Pysma u Suchasnii Linhvistytsi”. Problemy Semantyky Slova, Rechennia ta Tekstu 8: 305–309.
    7. Selezneva, L. B., ed. 1991. Yazyk i Pismo. Volgograd: VGPU.
    8. Frutiger, A. 2004. L’homme et les Signes. Signes, Symboles, Signaux. Paris: Atelier Perrousseaux.

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  8. Gountchik I., Raffier V. Letters-ideograms in Modern French Alphabet. - C. 53-58.
    This article is devoted to the letters-ideograms which are used in modern French alphabet. They are considered as often and close signs for the more detailed analysis from the point of view of ideography. The classification of three groups of letters according to their closure has been worked out. According to the results most of printed capital letters belong to group “o”. Group “1” has only six graphic signs. Only one letter belongs to group “2” – letter B. While studying the French alphabet we make a detailed analysis of letters-ideograms, including their component parts. We note that the essential elements of a letter-sign are: the circle, the horizontal line, the vertical line, the curve, the arrow and the cross. Most of the letters are open, which show the open system of the French language. In our research the classification of small letters-ideograms of the French alphabet on the level of a graphic element has been worked out and the pragmatic function of certain graphemes has been considered. The basis of small letters of the French alphabet is the graphic element and the description of pragmatic function of certain graphemes. We consider graphic signs as graphic objects which a person uses for the conventional replacement of the other object and which can concern the notion of an idea, syllable and sound. As to their essence small letters are letter signs that fulfill some functions: communicative, syntactic, system-forming and pragmatic. First attempts to determine the typological features of the graphemes of the French alphabet in order to study the scantily explored for the present communicative – pragmatic properties of this class of orthograms on the language level, that is script and ideography, have been made. Examining the monograms as ideographic signs and joining their pragmatic functions, our own four-level classification of the graphemes and ideograms for the common indication of a graphic element which is the basis of each group and gives the possibility to analyze French spelling from the point of view of ideography, has been worked out.
    Key words: grapheme, graphic sign, ideogram, letter, French alphabet, component part, closure, pragmatic function.
    References:
    1. Volkova, E. V. 2002. “Prostranstvo Simvola i Simvol Prostranstva v Robotakh Yu. M. Lotmana”. Voprosy Filosofii 11: 149–164.
    2. Danyliuk, S. S. 2004. “Neverbalni Zasoby Komunikatsii v Anhlomovnykh Elektronnykh Tekstakh”. Movni i Kontseptualni Kartyny Svitu 10: 121–134.
    3. Yermolenko, L. Yu. 2005. Piktohrafichni ta Ideohrafichni Znaky u Suchasnii Frantsuzkii Movi. Kyiv: Vadym Karpenko.
    4. Kriuchkov, H. H. 2004. “Orfohrafika Suchasnoi Frantsuzkoi Movy”. Naukovi Zapysky 13: 148–159.
    5. Kriuchkov, H. H. 1987. Sovremennaia Orfografiia Frantsuzkogo Yazyka. Kyiv: Vyshcha Shkola.
    6. Sytdykova, I. V. 2002. “Problema Pysma u Suchasnii Linhvistytsi”. Problemy Semantyky Slova, Rechennia ta Tekstu 8: 305–309.
    7. Selezneva, L. B., ed. 1991. Yazyk i Pismo. Volgograd: VGPU.
    8. Frutiger, A. 2004. L’homme et les Signes. Signes, Symboles, Signaux. Paris: Atelier Perrousseaux.

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  9. Gusak L. Psycholinguistic aspects of associative teaching of the foreign languages. - C. 59-66.
    Early learning of the foreign languages causes active searching of the ways of younger pupils’ additional opportunities by employing both hemispheres of head brain. One of the ways of solving this problem is associative teaching the foreign languages that is closely connected with both spheres of younger pupils’ activity: emotional (affective) and intellectual (cognitive).
    This article deals with the analysis of the psycholinguistic investigations of associations, which is closely connected with the problems of teaching foreign languages to younger pupils.
    Genesis of the notion” association” is presented in the given article. A special attention is paid to the English and American scientific schools dealing with investigation of associative phenomena. Two laws of verbal association are presented in the given article. Concerning the linguistic interpretation of association the author of the article proposes to determine the fifth stage in learning associations (in addition to four stages determined by O. Zalevska), which is closely connected with investigation of verbal and nonverbal associations and their usage in the process of teaching foreign languages.
    The appearance of associative lexicography, associative grammar and associative linguistic is closely connected with the publication of six-volume work “Associative thesaurus of the Russian language”. It was stated that associations can be a special model of keeping knowledge in our memory. Cognitivists suppose that there are special nets in our consciousness for keeping information: actualization of one net (by means of word-stimulus) tugs another net. Ukrainian linguists (N. Butenko, M Muravitska, A. Potebnya, N Terehova and others) treat associations as sense relations between words. A word activates complex mechanism of the associative relations which shape its image in person`s lexical memory.
    On the basis of the ideas of associative experiment the method of associative symbols was suggested for teaching English to primary school pupils.
    Key words: association, psychological investigations, verbal and nonverbal associations, associative teaching of foreign languages, method of associative symbols.
    References:
    1. Spenser, Gerbert, and Tsygen, Teodor. 1998. Assotsiativnaia Psikhologiia. Osnovnyie Napravleniia Psikhologii v Klassicheskikh Trudakh. G. Spenser. Osnovaniia Psikhologii. T. Tsygen. Fiziologicheskaia Psikhologiia: v 14 Lektsyiakh. Moskva: OOO AST-LTD.
    2. Barynkina, Irina. 1999. “Pedagogicheskiie Usloviia Razvitiia Sposobnostei Shkolnikov k Izucheniiu Inostrannykh Yazykov na Nachalnom Etape Obucheniia”. PhD diss., Brianskii Gosudarstvennyi Pedagogicheskii Universitet Imeni Akademika I. G. Petrovskogo.
    3. Vandriies, Zhozef. 1937. Yazyk: Lingvisticheskoie Vvedeniie v Istoriiu. Moskva: Sotsekgiz.
    4. Gobbs, Tomas. 1989. “Leviafan, ili Materiia, Forma i Vlast Gosudarstva Tserkovnogo i Grazhdanskogo”. In Sochineniia. Tom 2, edited by T. Gobbs. Moskva: Mysl.
    5. Goroshko, Yelena. 2001. Integrativnaia Model Svobodnogo Assotsiativnogo Eksperimenta. Moskva: Institut Yazykoznaniia RAN.
    6. Gumboldt, Vilgelm fon. 1984. Izbrannyie Trudy po Yazykoznaniiu. Translated by G. Ramishvili. Moskva: Progress.
    7. Zalevskaia, Aleksandra. 2005. Psikholingvisticheskiie Issledovaniia. Slovo. Tekst. Moskva: Gnozis.
    8. Ibragimova, Rezeda. 1999. “Linhvodidakticheskiie i Psikholinhvisticheskiie Osnovy Semantizatsyi i Aktivizatsyi Leksikona Mladshykh Shkolnikov Metodom Assotsyativnogo Polia”. PhD diss., Bashkirskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet.
    9. Karaulov, Yurii. 1999. Aktivnaia Grammatika i Assotsyativno-Verbalnaia Set. Moskva: IRYa RAN.
    10. Karaulov, Yurii. 1994. “Russkii Assotsyativnyi Slovar kak Novyi Lingvisticheskii Istochnik i Instrument Analiza Yazykovoi Sposobnosti”. In Russkiy Assotsyativnyi Slovar: v 2 kn. Kn. 1: Priamoi Slovar: ot Stimula k Reaktsyi: Assotsyativnyi Tezaurus Sovremennogo Russkogo Yazyka, edited by Yu. N. Karaulov, Yu. A. Sorokin, Ye. F. Tarasov, et al., 191–193. Moskva: Pomovskii i Partnery.
    11. Karaulov, Yurii. 1987. Russkii Yazyk i Yazykovaia Lichnost. M.: Nauka. (Karaulov 1987, 263).
    12. Krushevskii, Nikolai. 1883. “Ocherk Nauki o Yazyke”. Izvestiia i Uchenyie Zapiski Imperskogo Kazanskogo Universiteta. Tom XIX.
    13. Leontev, Aleksei. 1997. “Obshchiie Svedeniia ob Assotsyatsyiakh i Assotsyativnykh Normakh”. In Slovar Assotsyativnykh Norm Russkogo Yazyka, edited by A. A. Leonteva. Moskva: Izd-vo Moskovskogo Universiteta.
    14. Leontev, Aleksei. 1969. “Psikholingvistika”. Russkaya Rech 1: 14–20.
    15. Markova, Nadezhda. 2002. “Razvitie Rechevoi Deiatelnosti Mladshykh Shkolnikov na Osnove Sredstv Assotsyativnogo Voobrazheniia”. PhD diss., Kazanskii Gosudarstvennyi Pedagogicheskii Universitet.
    16. Marchuk, Uliana. 2009. “Asotsiatyvnyi Potentsial Linhvokulturnykh Kontseptiv u Riznosystemnykh Movakh”. PhD diss., Kyivskyi Natsionalnyi Universytet Imeni T. Shevchenka.
    17. Marchuk, Uliana. 2008. “Verbalni Asotsiatsii u Psykholinhvistychnykh Doslidzhenniakh”. Linhvisty Studii. Vypusk 16. http://litmisto.org.ua/?p=7848. ta in.
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    20. Zinchenko, V., and Meshcheriakova, B., eds. 1999. Psikhologicheskii Slovar. Moskva: Pedagogika-Press.
    21. Karaulov, Yurii, and Sorokin, Yurii and others, eds. 1994. Russkii Assotsyativnyi Slovar. Kniga 1: Priamoi Slovar: ot Stimula k Reaktsyi: Assotsyativnyi Tezaurus Sovremennogo Russkogo Yazyka. Chast 1. Moskva: Pomovskii i Partnery.
    22. Karaulov, Yurii, and Sorokin, Yurii and others, eds., 1994. Russkii Assotsyativnyi Slovar. Kniga 2: Obratnyi Slovar: ot Reaktsyi k Stimulu: Assotsyativnyi Tezaurus Sovremennogo Russkogo Yazyka. Chast 1. Moskva: IRYa RAN.
    23. Sakharnyi, Leonid. 1989. Vvedeniie v psikholingvistiku. Leningrad: Izdatelstvo Leningradskogo universiteta.
    24. Sossiur, Ferdinand de. 1977. Trudy po Yazykoznaniiu. Moskva: Progress.
    25. Terekhova, Diana. 2000. Osoblyvosti Spryiniattia Leksychnoi Semantyky Sliv (Psykholinhvistychnyi Aspekt). Kyiv: Vydavnychyi Tsentr KDLU.
    26. Yum, Devid. 1998. Traktat o Chelovecheskoi Prirode (1734–1737). Chast 1. Minsk: Popurri. http://filosof.historic.ru/books/item/f00/s00/z0000185/.
    27. Buzan, Tony. 2005. Mind Maps for Kids. London: Harper Thorsons.
    28. Deese, James. 1965. The structure of Association in Language and Thought. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
    29. Harley, Trevor. 2008. The Psychology of Language: From Data to Theory. New York: Psychology Press.
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  10. Hlyudzyk Y. The poetonym sphere of the cycle “The Chronicles of Narnia” by C. S. Lewis from the point of view of their etymology and language functioning (on the example of hydropoetonyms). - C. 36-40.

    The article studies the semantic class of hydropoetonyms selected from the fantasy cycle “The Chronicles of Narnia” in aspects of their origin and grammatical features. The group of poetonyms in question has been classified into an extensive system : the subgroup of pelahopoetonyms indicating seas and oceans, together with the subgroup of potamonyms representing various rivers. Consideration of proper names denoting water bodies within the suggested issues has proved the author’s determined choice of language units and basic formal features of poetonyms. The system and structural patterns of hydropoetonyms have been also suggested with two patterns being the prevailing ones: onymized common noun + of + name, attributive onymized common noun + onymized common noun. The origin and types of word formation of the given semantic class have been described in details. The type of semantic proprialization has been pointed out as the dominating word building method of hydropoetonyms. The main grammar features of the given semantic class proved to be their active use in the Common Case and various possessive constructions, as well in the typical nounal syntactic functions, i.e. the subject and the object. Partitive constructions, homonymic forms and onymized common nouns in plural form have been highlighted as the unique peculiarities of hydropoetonyms. The significance of hydropoetonyms has been outlined in the general poetonym sphere of the investigated fantasy cycle and in the author’s idiolect. The prospects for further investigations are to study the functional and cultural features of hydropoetonyms and consider other semantic classes of Narnian poetonyms both from the etymological and grammatical points of view and in terms of their cultural and stylistic colouring.

    Key words: literary onomastics, poetonym, hydropoetonym, idiolect, etymology, structural pattern.
    References:

    1. Kalinkin, Valerii. 1999. Poetika Onima. Donetsk: Yugo-Vostok.
    2. Petrenko Oksana. 2009. “Onimnyy Prostir Kazky Roalda Dala “The Minpins”. Studia Slovakistica. Onomastyka. Antroponimika 9: 310−314.
    3. Tkachenko, Yevhen. 2009. “Osoblyvosti Funktsionuvannya Toponimichnyh Poetonimiv u Poemi T. H. Shevchenka “Haydamaky”. Donetskyi Visnyk Naukovoho Tovarystva Imeni T. Shevchenka 26: 20–26.
    4. Arcamone, Maria Giovanna. 2012. “Names and Identities in the Italian Detective Story”. In Oslo Studies in Language. Names and Identities, edited by B. Helleland, C.-E. Ore & S. Wikstrɵm, 4(2): 17−27. Oslo.
    5. Blanár, Vincent. 2009. “Proper Names in the Light of Theoretical Onomastics”. Namenkundliche Informationen 95/96: 89−157.
    6. Kvašytė, Regina. 2009. Proper Names in the Lithuanian Translation of Yann Martel’s Life of Pi. http://yorkspace.library.yorku.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10315/3998/icos23_618.pdf?sequence=1.
    7. Lewis, Clive Staples. 2010. “The Horse and His Boy”: 199–310. In The Chronicles of Narnia, edited by Clive Staples Lewis, 199–310. London: HarperCollins Publishers.
    8. Lewis, Clive Staples. 2010. “The Last Battle”. In The Chronicles of Narnia, edited by Clive Staples Lewis, 665–767. London: HarperCollins Publishers.
    9. Lewis, Clive Staples. 2010. “The Silver Chair”. In The Chronicles of Narnia, edited by Clive Staples Lewis, 543–664. London: HarperCollins Publishers.
    10. Online Etymology Dictionary. Last modified 2014. http://www.etymonline.com.

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  11. Kalishchuk D. Segments of Values in the Concept of FREEDOM in Barack Obama’s Discourse. - C. 77-83.
    In the article the concept of FREEDOM as one of the basic concepts of English-speaking political discourse is analysed, as well as peculiarities of its actualization in B.Obama’s discourse. The concept is treated as a linguistic-cognitive phenomenon, as a global unit of mentality, which is a quantum of structured knowledge. Special attention has been devoted to value as a constituent of the concept. Through the analysis of language means of concept actualization the nominative field of the concept of FREEDOM has been built.
    Having defined the series of synonyms for the key lexeme – freedom, and having analysed the contexts of their usage, we have built the core of the nominative field. It comprises the following lexical units (given from the most frequent to the least frequent ones): freedom, right, liberty, independence, sovereignty, self-determination, privilege, liberation, self-government, emancipation.
    The analysis of combinability of the defined lexemes made it possible to distinguish the main cognitive features of the concept, to describe the near and far periphery of the nominative field of the concept. The near periphery of the nominative field of the concept includes the following cognitive features (given from the most frequent to the least frequent ones): types of freedoms, freedom and values (ideals), independence from, fight for freedom, economy and freedom, freedom as a gift, energy independence, freedom as force. The far periphery comprises the following cognitive features: freedom’s victory, freedom as a construction, freedom as destination, freedom as a living being, true freedom, great freedom, freedom songs, flame of freedom, fresh air of freedom, a rising tide of liberty.
    According to their dominating characteristics, the distinguished cognitive features are combined into segments of values, i.e. the constituents of concept mental structure. It is ascertained that all segments of values are represented in the mental structure of the concept of FREEDOM in Barack Obama’s discourse, namely POLITICAL VALUES, RELIGIOUS VALUES, VITAL VALUES, MORAL VALUES, ECONOMIC VALUES, SOCIAL VALUES, ESTHETIC VALUES. It is proved that cognitive features may function as constituents of different segments and may represent different values at the same time. It is defined, that in B.Obama’s discourse SOCIAL VALUES segment is presented to the fullest extent, as all the distinguished cognitive features are included into it.
    Key words: discourse, concept, cognitive features of the concept, values, segments of the concept mental structure.
    References:
    1. Basenko, Natalia, and Milevskaya, Tatiana. 2004. “Politicheskaya Svoboda: Opyt Diskurs-Analiza”. Aktualnyie Problemy Teorii Komunnikatsii, 86–97. Sankt Peterburg: Izdatelstvo SPbGPU.
    2. Vorkachov, Sergei. 2007. Lubov kak Lingvokulturnyi Kontsept. Moskva: Gnosis.
    3. Ierasov, Boris. 2000. Sotsialnaya Kulturologia. Moskva: Aspect Press.
    4. Kalishchuk, Diana. 2009. “Bazovi Kontsepty Suchasnoho Anhlomovnoho Politychnoho Dyskursu. Kontsept Democratia”. Naukpvyi Visnyk Volynskoho Natsionalnoho Universytetu Imeni Lesi Ukrainky 16: 81–85.
    5. Karasik, Vladimir. 2004. Yazykovoi Krug: Lichnost, Kontsepty, Diskurs. Moskva: Gnozis.
    6. Kubriakova, Elena. 1996. “Kontsept”. In Kratkii Slovar Kognitivnykh Terminov, edited by Elena Kubriakova, Valerii Demiankov, Iulia Pankpats, and Liudmila Luzina, 90–93. Moskva: Moscow University.
    7. Mironets, Evgenia. 2007. “Evoliutsiia i Osobennosti Yazykovoi Reprezentatsii Aksiologicheskogo Kontsepta “Democracy” v Inauguratsionnykh Rechakh Prezidentov SSHA”. PhD diss., Vladivоstok.
    8. Popova, Zinaida and Sternin, Iosif. 2007. Kognitivnaia Lingvistika. Moskva: AST: Voctok–Zapad.
    9. Prikhodko, Anatolii. 2008. Kontsepty i Kontseptosystemy v Kohnityvno-Dyskursyvnii Paradyhmi Linhvistyky. Zaporizhia: Premier.
    10. Stepanov, Iurii. 1999. “Kratkaia Spravka o Sisteme Vzgliadov”. Filosofia Yazyka v Granitsakh і vne Granits, 8–13. Kharkov: Oko.
    11. Hornby, A. S. 1994. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
    12. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. 2000. Pearson Education Ltd., Edinburgh Gate, Harlow.
    13. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 2001. Oxford University Press.
    14. Fergusson, Rosalind, and Manser, Martin, and Picering, David, ed. 2004. The Penguin Thesaurus. London: The Penguin Group: Penguin Books Ltd.
    15. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language. 1986. Springfield, Massachusetts, USA.

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  12. Kinakh L., Prykhodko A. Paradigmatic and Syntactic Properties of the Substantivized Adjective of Modern German. - C. 91-97.
    This article focuses on the complex study of the substantivized adjective of modern German to define its nominative and communicative properties. It analyses the specificity of morphological categories of substantivized adjectives, suggests their lexical semantic classification and presents qualitative quantitative characteristics of the selected lexical semantic groups. The article describes the specific features of the paradigmatic relations and word-formative potential of the analysed units, reveals their semantic functional and functional syntactic properties, including the specific character of their syntactic compatibility, and exposes peculiarities of their discourse usage on micro- and macrotextual levels.
    Topicality of the article is determined by the general direction of knowledge humanitarian paradigm to study cognitive and communicative aspects of speech activities with its increased interest to the processes of the verbal arrangement of thoughts and its special attention to the different syncretic products, among which the substantivized adjective takes up the special place. Realization of the complex analysis of the substantivized adjective is connected with the necessity to make clear the regularities of transposition of speech units from one grammatical category into another, that can help to cognize closely the place and the role of nomination processes in the principles and mechanisms of the language mapping of the world.
    Key words: substantivized adjective, lexical semantic group, micro- and macrotext, morphological category, nomination, paradigmatic relations, syntactic compatibility, word-formation.
    References:
    1. Kubriakova, Еlena. 1974. “Derivatsiia, Transpozitsiia, Konversiia”. Voprosy Yazykoznaniia 5: 64–76.
    2. Sirotina, Аrletina. 1961. “Substantivatsyia Imyon Prilagatelnykh i Prichastii v Sovremennom Nemetskom Yazyke”. PhD diss., Moskva.
    3. Smirnova, Alla. 1989. “Substantivatsiia Imyon Prilagatelnykh i Prichastii v Sovremennom Nemetskom Yazyke”. PhD diss., Leningrad.
    4. Bauer, L., and Valera S. 2005. “Conversion or Zero-Derivation: an Introduction”. In Approaches to Conversion / Zero-Derivation, edited by L. Bauer, S. Valera, 7–15. Münster–New York–München–Bierwisch: Waxmann.
    5. Dokulil, Miloš. 1968. “Zur Frage der Sog. Nullableitung”. In Wortbildung, Syntax und Morphologie. Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Hans Marchand, herausgegeben von H. Breckle, L. Lipka, 55–64. Paris: Mouton The Hague.
    6. Olsen, Susan. 1987. “Zum «Substantivierten» Adjektiv im Deutschen. Deutsch als eine pro-Drop-Sprache”. Studium Linguistik 21: 1–35.
    7. Vater, Heinz. 1987. “Zu Sogenannten «Substantivierten Adjektiven» im Deutschen”. In Festschrift für K. Hyldgaard-Jensen zum 70. Geburtstag, herausgegeben von M. Dyhr, J. Olsen, 279–290. Kopenhagen : University.
    8. Vogel, Petra M. 1996. Wortarten und Wortartwechsel: Zu Konversion und Verwandten Erscheinungen im Deutschen und in Anderen Sprachen. Bierwisch–New York: de Gruyter.
    9. Wiese, Rschard. 2002. “A Model of Conversion in German”. In More than Words: A Festschrift for Dieter Wunderlich, herausgegeben von I. Kaufmann, B. Stiebels, 47–67. Bierwisch: Akademie.
    10. Zimmermann, Ilse. 1988. “Die substantivische Verwendung von Adjektiven und Partizipien”. In Syntax, Semantik und Lexikon, herausgegeben von M. Bierwisch, W. Motsch, I. Zimmermann, 279–311. Bierwisch: Akademie.

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  13. Koliada E., Kondruk A. Euphemisms as the Means of Manipulation in the Political Discourse. - C. 104-109.
    This article deals with the functioning of euphemisms in the political discourse. The euphemisms are researched on the basis of the English sources. The main attention is focused on their manipulative impact on the consciousness of the recipient. The basic peculiarities of the political discourse are mentioned. The motives of using euphemisms in the political discourse have been singled out. The main factors evoking the usage of euphemy in political speeches are examined. The dark side of language euphemizing is outlined. Euphemisms are analyzed as a tool that helps people to perceive the truth that they would rather not hear at all. There are examples which indicate the usage of the “doublespeak” by politicians in order to achieve some pragmatic aims. There is a rising tendency to avoid speaking directly about some topics. To be politically correct not always means to be honest. To euphemize is one more convenient way to lie and to alter the perception of the bitter truth. The main peculiarities of the political communication which make it totally different from the language of everyday usage are revealed. The conclusion offers the suggestions for the future research of the functioning of euphemisms not only in the political but also in other types of discourse.
    Key words: euphemy, euphemism, manipulation, political discourse, political correctness
    References:
    1. Akayomova, Anzhela. 2011. “Vykorystannia Movnoi Komunikatsii v Politychnomy Dyskursi”. http://dspace.nbuv.gov.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/26828/08-Akayomova.pdf?sequence=1.
    2. Baranov, Anatolii, and Y. Kazakievich. 1991. Parlamientskie Diebaty: Traditsyi i Novatsyi. Moskva: Znaniie.
    3. Baskova, Yuliia. 2006. “Evfiemizmy kak Sriedstvo Manipulirovaniia v Yazykie SMI (na Matierialie Russkogo i Angliiskogo Yazykov”. PhD diss., Krasnodar. http://www.bibliofond.ru/view.aspx?id=62492.
    4. Bushkova, V., and A. Melnychenko. 2012. “Ideolohichni Evfemizmy – Etymolohiia ta Sposoby Nominatsii Realii Politychnoho Zmistu”. http://www.rusnauka.com/13_EISN_2012/Philologia/2_98684.doc.htm.
    5. Velykoroda, Vira. 2007. “Semantychni ta Funktsionalno-Prahmatychni Kharakterystyky Evfemizmiv v Anhliiskii Movi”. PhD diss., Lviv.
    6. Galpierin, Ilia. 1981. Stilistika Angliiskogo Yazyka. Moskva: Vysshaia Shkola. http://www.filologs.ru/.
    7. Dotsenko, Yevgienii. 1996. “Manipuliatsiia: Fienomen, Miekhanizm, Zashchita”. http://www.aquarun.ru/psih/ks/ks7.html.
    8. Korotkikh, G. 1987. “Lingvopragmatichieskiie Usloviia Funktsionirovaniia Implikatsii Otsenki v Yazykie Sovriemiennoi Angliiskoi Priessy”. Pragmatichieskiie Usloviia Funktsionirovaniia Yazyka: sbornik statiei, 21–30. Kiemierovo.
    9. Moskvin, Vasilii. 2001. “Evfiemizmy: Sistiemnyie Sviazi, Funktsii i Sposoby Obrazovaniia”. Voprosy Yazykoznaniia, 58–70.
    10. Obvintseva, Olga. 2003. “Evfemizm v Politicheskoi Kommunikatsii (na Matieriale Angliiskogo Yazyka v Sopostavlenii s Russkim)”. PhD diss., Yekatierinburg.
    11. Rogozina, I. 1983. “Pragmatichieskaia Oriientatsiia Oratorskoi Rechi”. Pragmaticheskiie Aspiekty Funktsionirovaniia Yazyka, 59–71. Barnaul: AHU.
    12. Romanov, A. 2002. Politicheskaia Lingvistika: Funktsionalnyi Podkhod. Moskva–Tver: IYA RAN, TvGU.
    13. Siergieiev, Viktor. 1987. “Kognitivnyie Mietody v Sotsialnykh Issledovaniiakh”. Yazyk i Modelirovaniie Sotsialnogo Vzaimodeistviia, 3–20. Moskva: Progress.
    14. Solganik, Grigorii. 1990. “Publitsystika kak Iskusstvo Slova”. Poetika Publitsystiki, 3–9. Moskva: Izd-vo MHU.
    15. Strizhenko, A. 1981. “Stilistichieskiie Aspiekty Propagandistskogo Riechievogo Vozdieistviia”. Sodierzhatielnyi Analiz Osnovnykh Yazykovykh Yedinits: 78–92. Barnaul: AHU.
    16. Tatsenko, N. 2013. “Semantychni ta Prahmatychni Aspekty Evfemii u Anhlomovnomu Politychnomu Dyskursi (na Materiali Promov Baraka Obamy)”. Uchionyie Zapiski Tavrichieskogo Natsionalnogo Univiersitieta Imeni V. I. Viernadskogo. Sieriia “Filologiia. Sotsialnyie Kommunikatsii” 26 (65), 1: 164–168. Sumy.
    17. Trietiukhin, A. 1981. “Pragmaticheskii Komponent v Strukturie Nominativnogo Akta”. Probliemy Lieksichieskoi Nominatsii v Angliiskom Yazykie, 3–6. Moskva.
    18. Trietiakova, Tatiana. 2004. “Opyt Lingvistichieskogo Analiza Argumientatsyi v Politichieskom Dialoge”. Kommunikatsiia i Obrazovaniie, 299–320. Sankt-Pietierburg: Sankt-Pietierburgskoie Filosofskoie Obshchiestvo.
    19. Tkhir, Vira. 2004. “Osoblyvosti Utvorennia Politychnykh Evfemizmiv (na Prykladi Ideolohichnykh Evfemizmiv)”. Humanitarnyi Visnyk. Seriia: Inozemna Filolohiia 8: 313–315. Cherkasy.
    20. Sheigal, Yelena. 1999. “Yazyk i Vlast”. Yazykovaia Lichnost: Problemy Lingvokulturologii i Funktsionalnoi Siemantiki, 132–149. Volgograd: Pieriemiena.
    21. Charen, Mona. 2010. “What the Euphemisms Tell Us”. http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2010/04/10/what_the_euphemisms_tell_us_105104.html.
    22. Denton, R., and Woodward, J., and Gary, C. 1990. Political Communication in America. New York: Praeger Publishers.
    23. Holder, R. 2008. Oxford Dictionary of Euphemisms. Oxford: Oxford University Press Inc.
    24. Orwell, George. 1946. Politics and the English Language. http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/George_Orwell/Politics_English_Language.html.
    25. Steinmetz, Katy. 2013. “Six Ways Obama Talks about War Without Saying «War»”. Time. http://swampland.time.com/2013/09/10/six-ways-obama-talks-about-war-without-saying-war/.

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  14. Kotys O. Stammering: Linguistic, Physical and Social Aspects. - C. 104-109.
    The article analyses the phenomenon of stammering from various perspectives: linguistic, physical and social. A lot of attention is paid to the reason why people stammer, classification of stammering as well as experimental research and approaches to treatment.
    David Crystal defines stammering as a speech production disability and includes neurological, psychological and anatomical steps required to encode a linguistic message and make it ready for transmission. Stammering usually occurs when people are not able to control rhythm and timing of their speech. This may happen due to physical as well as psychological reasons. Stammering usually starts at the age from one to three and can be overcome when treated consistently. There are at least seven types of stammering and they are usually accompanied by non-verbal behavior (grimacing, twitching etc.). Nearly 2% of adults stammer, while 10% of children do. Many famous people suffered from stammering, nevertheless very many others failed to be successful because of the psychological barrier caused by this symptom.
    The article reviews modern practices directed towards successful treatment of stammerers including very simple practices and more sophisticated ones.
    Key words: speech pathology, language disability, stammering (stuttering), symptoms, cerebral, hemispheres, experiment, treatment.
    References:
    1. Berry, Mildred and Eisenson, Jon. 1956. Speech Disorders: Principles and Practices of Therapy. New York: Appleton–Century–Croftd.
    2. British Stammering Association Comments on ‘The King’s Speech’ Film, 2011. Accessed March 2015. http://www.stammering.org/speaking-out/article/british-stammering-association-comments-kings-speech-film
    3. Crystal, David. 2010. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Third Edition. Cambridge University Press.
    4. Ezrati-Vinacour R., and Platzky R., and Yairi E. 2001. “The Young Child’s Awareness of Stuttering Like Disfluency”. Speech Lang. Hear Res.
    5. Famous people who stutter. The Stuttering Foundation. Accessed March 2015. http://www.stutteringhelp.org/famous-people-who-stutter.
    6. Goodstein, Leonard. 1958. “Functional Speech Disorders and Personality: A Survey of the Research”. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research.
    7. Hayhow, R., and Cray, A. M, and Enderby, P. 2002. “Stammering and Therapy Views of People Who Stammer”. Journal of Fluency Disorders.
    8. Hugh-Jones, S., and Smith, P. K. 1999. “Self-Reports of Short- and Long-Term Effect of Bullying on Children Who Stammer”. British Journal of Educational Psychology.
    9. Karlin, Isaac. 1948. “Stuttering”. The American Journal of Nursing 48 (1): 42–44.
    10. Klein, J. F, and Hood, S. B. 2004. “The Impact of Stuttering on Employment Opportunities and Job Performance”. Journal of Fluency Disorders.
    11. Murray, Elwood. 1937. The Speech Personality. Philadelphia.
    12. Oerton, Richard. 2011. Remembering Lionel Logue. Accessed on February 2015. http://www.stammering.org/speaking-out/articles/remembering-lionel-logue.
    13. O’Brian, S., and Onslow, M. 2011. “Clinical Management of Stuttering in Children and Adults”. BMJ: British Medical Journal 343 (7813).
    14. Philips, Gerald. 1968. “Reticence: Pathology of the Normal Speaker”. Speech Monographs 53 (1): 39–49. New York: Routlege.
    15. Speech and Brain Research Group, Oxford University. 2012. Using the Brain to Understand Stammering. Accessed on February 2015. http://www.stammering.org/speaking-out/articles/using-brain-understand-stammering.
    16. Van Rieper, Charles. 1963. Speech Correction: Principles and Methods. Englewood Cliffs.

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  15. Kozak S., Blyzniuk L. A Description of Man and Nature in Frame Structures (on the Material of English Fiction Discourse). - C. 18-22.
    In recent years we can observe an increasing interest of the scientists to the processes of formation, existence and transfer of human knowledge. Especially the scholars in the field of artificial intelligence try to create such structures which would contain encyclopaedia data about certain objects and situations. This process stimulates the development of the frame theories.
    The present article is dedicated to the study of frame structures which describe man and nature in literary discourse. The cognitive-pragmatic peculiarities of the frame structures which represent frames “Man” and “Nature” in English literary discourse have been analyzed on the material of the literary prose work of the English writer of the end of the XIX-th century Thomas Hardy “Tess of the d’Urbervilles”.
    The structure of the frames “Man” and “Nature” has been described; in particular the main terminals which belong to the aforementioned frames have been determined. The analysis of the lexical units which represent the terminals of the frames “Man” and “Nature” in Thomas Hardy’s novel “Tess of the d’Urbervilles” has been carried out.
    On the basis of the analyzed frame structures we have studied the role of the frames “Man” and “Nature” in the interpretation of author’s pragmatics in fiction discourse. It was determined that the frame as a cognitive structure reveals its properties most significantly in those frame structures which describe nature not only as an environment but also illustrate interconnection of man and nature, showing up the inner world of the characters by means of the description of their perception of outer world.
    Key words: man, nature, frame, frame structure, terminal, terminal element.
    References:
    1. Kuchinskaia, Yelizaveta. 1992. “Makropole Komparativnosti Nauchnogo Stila v Sovremennom Angliiskom Yazyke (Podstil Tochnykh Nauk)” [A Macrofield of Comparison of Scientific Style in Modern English Language (a Substyle of Hard Science)]. Ph.D. diss., Minskii Gosudarstvennyi Pedagogicheskii Institut Inostrannykh Yazykov.
    2. Beaugrande, R.-A., de, and Dressler, W. U. 1981. Einführung in die Textlinguistik [Introduction into Text Linguistics]. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
    3. Dijk van, Teun Adrianus. 1977. “Semantic Macrostructures and Knowledge Frames in Discourse Comprehension”. In Cognitive Processes in Comprehension, edited by M. A. Just, P. A. Carpenter, 3–32. Hillsdale.
    4. Fillmore, Ch. J. 1975. “An Alternative to Checklist Theories of Meaning”. Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 123–131. Berkeley.
    5. Minsky, Marvin. 1977. “Frame-System Theory”. Thinking, 355–376. Cambridge: Mass.
    6. Hardy, Thomas. 1994. Tess of the d’Urbervilles. London: Penguin Books.

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  16. Krysanova T. Cognitive Metaphor and Cognitive Metonymy of Anger in English Cinema Discourse- C. 109-115.
    The article examines anger cognitive metaphor and metonymy characteristic for English cinema discourse. Imaginary nature of cinema discourse lies in its ability to narrate, creating images that are metaphorical and symbolic. Cognitive metaphor and cognitive metonymy reflect the generic and specific features of anger. Among the anger cognitive metaphors in cinema discourse one can mention universal conventional metaphors such as ANGER IS CONTAINER WITH BOILING LIQUID, ANGER IS A FIRE, ANGER IS A RIVAL IN A STRUGGLE, ANGER IS A WILD ANIMAL, ANGER IS NATURE, ANGER IS FORCE, ANGER IS MADNESS. They emphasize the intensity and power of anger pointing out the danger, which an expression of anger brings to communicants .Cognitive metaphors can be combined with the parts of a human body which are associated with feelings or things that are relevant to these bodies.
    Among specific metaphors, identified in cinema discourse, one can distinguish such cognitive metaphors as ANGER IS COLD, ANGER IS AN INSECT, ANGER IS PAIN, ANGER IS THREAT, ANGER IS EVIL SPIRIT. They reflect the images created with the help of lingual and non-lingual cinematic means.
    Cinema discourse can be regarded as the source of non-lingual metonimies. Cognitive metonymy in cinema discourse is realized verbally and cinematic or only cinematic – DARKNESS, NATURAL DISASTER, EXPLOSION, HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN ANGER IS THE BEHAVIOR OF A CRAZY PERSON. The defined metaphors and metonymies are based on physiological, psychological and behavioral characteristics of a person who is experiencing the emotion of anger.
    Cognitive metaphor and metonymy as a tool of cognition are capable of converting knowledge about abstract concepts that exist in the human mind into material models that make up the world.
    Key words: anger, cinema discourse, cognitive metaphor, cognitive metonymy, emotion.
    References:
    1. Agafonova, Nataliia. 2009. Ekrannoie Iskusstvo: Khudozhiestviennaia i Kommunikativnaia Spietsyphika. Minsk: BGU Kultury i Iskusstv.
    2. Krasavskii, Nikolai. 2001. Emotsionalnyie Kontsepty v Niemietskoi i Russkoi Lingvokulturach. Volgograd: Pieriemiena.
    3. Slyshkin, Giennadii, and Iefriemova, Marina. 2004. Kinotekst (Oput Lingvokulturologichieskogo Analiza). Moskva: Vodolei Publishers.
    4. Shakhovskii, Viktor. 2008. Lingvisticheskaia Teoriia Emotsii. Moskva: Gnozis.
    5. 15 Minutes. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/15-Minutes.html.
    6. Alone in the Dark. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Alone-in-the-Dark.html.
    7. Barnden, John A. 2010. “Metaphor and Metonymy: Making their Connections More Slippery”. Cognitive Linguistics 21 (1): 1–34.
    8. “Batman”. The Internet Movie Script Database. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/ Batman.html.
    9. “Boondock Saints”. The Internet Movie Script Database. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Boondock-Saints.html.
    10. “Detroi Rock City”. The Internet Movie Script Database. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/ Detroi-Rock-City.html.
    11. “From Dusk Till Dawn”. The Internet Movie Script Database. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/ From-Dusk-Till-Dawn.html.
    12. “Ghost”. The Internet Movie Script Database. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/ Ghost.html
    13. “Halloween”: The Curse of Michael Myers. The Internet Movie Script Database. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Halloween-The-Curse-of-Michael-Myers.html.
    14. “Indiana Jones and the Monkey King”. The Internet Movie Script Database. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/ Indiana-Jones-and-the-Monkey-King.html.
    15. Jacob’s Ladder. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/ Jacob’s-Ladder.html
    16. Stone, Oliver, and Sklar, Zachary. “JFK”. The Internet Movie Script Database. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/JFK.html.
    17. “Jurassic Park”. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/ Jurassic-Park.html
    18. Kovecses, Zoltan. 2000. Metaphor and Emotion. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    19. Lakoff, George. 1987. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things. What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
    20. “Life as a House”. The Internet Movie Script Database. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Life-As-A-House.html.
    21. “The Crow”. The Internet Movie Script Database. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/ The-Crow.html.
    22. “Total Recall”. The Internet Movie Script Database. /http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/ Total-Recall.html.
    Скачати

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  17. Kyiak T. Interсultural Communication, Discourse and Translation. - C. 83-91.
    This article deals with the hypothesis about the discourse factor preserve of in the process of translation of different text genres. The translation depending on the object of translation in the “poetry – narrative literature – scientific and technical texts with the low abstraction level – with the medium abstraction level- with the high abstraction level” aspect. In this paper, specific features of the notion of culture have been analyzed. This article also deals with the interplay and interconnection between separate cultures. The history of the world-famous city of Kainurgardur has been recounted. Problems with respect to translation difficulties in some works have been identified. The distinctive features of text and discourse have been singled out. Attention is also devoted to the differences between textual and cross-cultural communication. The difficulties which arise in the process of translation from one language into another have been analyzed. It is affirmed that the main reason for this lies in the differences involving key ethnic concepts. It is demonstrated that in the cultures of different nations, there are significant differences between the terminological systems, and particularly in the definitions of key concepts. It is interesting to note that the more remote the culture is, the more different is the understanding of the notions. It has been stressed that discourse is a factor in cross-cultural communication as well as a category of translation.
    Key words: discourse, translation, text, abstraction, genre, level, aspect, cross-cultural communication.
    References:
    1. Arutiunova, Nina. 1990. “Dyskurs”. In Linhvisticheskii Entsyklopedicheskii Slovar, edited by V. N. Yartseva, 136–137. Moskva: Sovietskaia Entsyklopedia.
    2. Gumboldt, Vilgelm fon. 1984. “O Razlichenii Stroieniia Chelovecheskikh Yazykov i Yego Vliianiie na Dukhovnoie Razvitiie Chelovechestva”. In Izbrannyie Trudy po Yazykoznaniiu, edited by Vilgelm fon Gumboldt. Moskva: Progress.
    3. Grishulin, A. L. 1998. Issledovatelskie Aspekty Tekstologii. Мoskva: Naslediie.
    4. Deik, Тen Аdrianys van. 1989. Yazyk. Poznaniie. Kommunikatsyia. Translated by V.V. Petrova. Мoskva: Progress.
    5. Diakov, A. S., and Kudelko, Z. B. 2000. Osnovy Terminotvorennia: Semantychni ta Sotsiolinhvistychni Aspekty. Kyiv: Akademiia.
    6. Kiiak, Taras. 1988. Motivirovannost Leksicheskikh Edinits (Kolichestvennyie i Kachestvennyie Kharakteristiki). Lvov: Vysshaia Shkola.
    7. Kiiak, Taras, and Naumenko, A. M., and Ogui, O. D. 2008. Perekladoznavstvo (Nimetsko-Ukrainskyi Napriamok). Кyiv: Kyivskyi Universytet.
    8. Kodzuo, Nakai. 1991. Vstup do Ukrainskoi Movy. Токіо.
    9. Nauchno-Tekhnicheskaia Terminologiia. Тom ІІІ. 1969. Мoskva: Izdatelstvo Standartov.
    10. Sadokhin, A. P. 2006. Mezhkulturnaia Kommunikatsyia. Мoskva: Alfa; Infra.
    11. Beutler, Ernst, herausgegeben von. 1977. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. Sämtliche Werke. Band 9/14. Zürich: Artemius.
    12. Goetze, Lutz. 2009. “Multikulturalismus, Hyperkulturalität und Interkulturelle Kompetenz”. Informationen. Deutsch als Fremdsprache, 325–333. München: IUDICIUM Verlag.
    13. Herder, Johann Gottfried. 1989. Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    14. Koschmal, Walter. 2014. Taras Ševčenko. Dervergessene Dichter. Ikone – Berlin – Washing/D.C.: Verlag Otto Sagner.
    15. Wodak, Ruth. 1996. Disorders of Discource. London: Longman.
    16. Wahrig Deutsches Wörterbuch. 1997. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag.

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  18. Lavrynenko H. Stylistic Functions of Professional Jargonisms in the Language of German Periodicals<br /> - C. 116-122.

    It is well known, that different language units, apart from carrying their principal communicative function, are capable to fulfill several additional functions. Among these additional functions the stylistic function can be distinguished, which expresses it’s influence by extending the same sense in the variety of different lexico-syntactic forms. Differentiating the stylistic phenomena into two categories – the stylistic means that became the language instrument and the occasional, which can be actualized only in context, the researcher regards it as possible to distinguish the stylistic function of ordinary words. Being occurred in the context of the press language, the mentioned words can develop the stylistic function in different variants. An explanation is provided relating to stylistic functions which profession-related jargon performs in the press. Consideration is given to extralinguistic vocabulary, involving the intentional creation of stylistic effects by means of specific patterns of organization and usage of the language units under examination. It has been found that words which have a neutral ‘coloration’ in the layer of general language acquire a brighter coloration when used in more specific contexts, as expressed in stylistic functions and their subsets which are figuratively expressive and emotionally evaluative.
    Key words: professional jargonisms, stylistic function, the unexpectedness effect, humoristic effect, expressive-communicative function, expressive-image function, emotional-evaluative function.
    References
    1. Aznaurova, E. S. 1973. “K Voprosu o Prirode Stilisticheskoi Funktsyi Yazyka”. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov MGPIIYA Imeni Morisa Toreza 73: 3–11.
    2. Galkina-Fedoruk, E. M. 1968. “Ob Ekspriesivnosti i Emotsyonalnosti v Yazyke”. Sbornik Statei po Yazykoznaniiu. Мoskva: Nauka, 68–73.
    3. Gladkaia, N. M. 1977. “Stilisticheskiie Funktsyi Professionalnykh Zhargonizmov v Nemetskoi Presse”. Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov MGPIIIA 99: 53–70.
    4. Hinka, B. I. 2008. Lexikologie der Deutschen Sprache: Lehrbuch. Ternopil: Nationale Pädagogische Wolodymyr-Hnatjuk-Universität Ternopil.
    5. Riesel, E. 1963. Stilistik der Deutschen Sprache. Moskau: Hochschule.
    6. Oguy, O. O. 2003. Lexikologie der Gegenwärtigen Deutschen Sprache: Lehrbuch. Winnitsa: Nova Knyha.
    7. Stepanova, M. D., und Cernysova, I. I. 1986. Lexikologie der Deutschen Gegewartssprache: Lehrbuch. Moskau: Hochschule.
    8. Lippe aktuell Sport. 2014. 31. Oktober.
    9. Welt am Sontag. 2014. 26. Oktober.
    10. Gesund. 2014. 26. Oktober.
    11. Volkstimme. 2014. 13. September.
    12. Berliner Zeitung. 2014. 18. August.

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  19. Levchuk A. Intimization and Graphical Means of Text Organization. - C. 122-127.
    The article deals with the influence of text graphical means on the implementation of the intimization communicative strategy. It demonstrates their influence on the communicative tactics of the addressee involvement on the level of discourse.
    Reference has been made to the intimization communicative strategy as well as the system of linguistic graphical means that create the effect of ingenuous, immediate and friendly communication via a fiction text and can be used to shorten the narrative distance between the author and the reader.
    This article reveals the types of the addresser and the addressee of the literary discourse and their roles in the process of intimization. Communication via fiction text, performed in the situation of a distant contact through a written channel, is interpersonal and always asynchronic. Graphically prominent text parts attract reader`s attention, highlighting important elements and creating the effect of the direct communication with the author – the core condition of the intimization communicative strategy.
    One of the ways to implement communicative strategy of intimization is to involve the reader, via the system of text graphical organization, to the author`s individual world model, thus shortening the distance between them and imitating synchronic communication.
    Means of graphic organization intensify text semantics; add expressiveness and pragmatic value to a message. Punctuation marks, capitalization etc. are used to highlight other means of intimization, whereas visual text parts can perform this function independently. Application of the stylistic graphical methods increases the number of communicative channels used to send information to a reader and improves the understanding.
    Key words: intimization, discourse, text, graphical means, visual text, communicative strategy, communicative tactics.
    References:
    1. Anokhina, Tetiana. 2006. “Neverbalni ta Verbalni Zasoby Eksterioryzatsii Sylentsialnoho Efektu v Anhlomovnomu Phudozhnomy Dyskursi”. PhD diss., National Pedagogical Dragomanov University.
    2. Arnold, Irina. 2002. Stilistika. Sovremennyi Angliiskii Yazyk. 5 edition. Moskow: Flinta; Nauka.
    3. Arutiunova, Nina. 1990. “Dyskurs”. In Linhvisticheskii Entsyklopedicheskii Slovar, edited by V. N. Yartseva, 136–137. Moskva: Sovietskaia Entsyklopedia.
    4. Danyliuk, Serhii. 2009. “Vykorystannia Hrafichnikh Zasobiv u Tekstakh Elektronnoi Poshty”. Naukovi Zapysky. Filolohiia, 216–219. Vinnytsia: Vinnutskyi Derzhavnyi Pedahohichnyi Universytet.
    5. Morokhovskyi, A., and Vorobiova, O., and Lykhosherst N., and Tymoshenko, Z. 1991. Stilistika Angliiskogo Yazyka. Kyiv: Vyshcha Shkola.
    6. Paliichuk, Anna. 2011. “Koefitsiient Efektyvnosti Intymizatsii u Komunikatyvnykh Blokakh Tekstu”. Materialy XI Mizhvuzivskoi Konferentsii Molodykh Vchenykh “Sychasni Problemy ta Perspektyvy Doslidzhen Romanskykh ta Hermanskykh Mov i Literatur” (26-27 sichnia). Donetsk: DonNU.
    7. Henry, O. 1995. 100 Selected Stories (chosen by Sapper). Wordsworth Editions Limited.
    8. Mansfield, Katherine. 1998. The Garden Party. Penguin Classics.
    9. Maugaham, William Somerset. 1976. Sixty-Five Short Stories. London: William Heinemann Limited and Octopus Books Limited.

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  20. Makaruk L., Synthesis of Verbal and Non-Verbal Devices in English Communication. - C. 138-142.
    Synthesis of Verbal and Non-Verbal Devices in English CommunicationIn this article different types of non-verbal signs have been analyzed. The peculiarities and the functioning of these signs have been described. The interdependence and interconnection of verbal and non-verbal components of communication have been analyzed. The distinct features of verbal and non-verbal means of communication as constituent parts of different sign systems have been identified. Attention is directed to the fact that a distinct feature of modern English written communication is the symbiosis of multiple semiotic resources which belong to several different sign systems. Graphic play has been analyzed as a part of graphic linguistics. Extensive attention has been focused on the terminology that is connected with graphic linguistics, and the means and types of graphic play which are an integral part of the process have been defined. Attention has been devoted to its origin, and to the development and usage of its terminology. Non-verbal devices have been divided into several groups taking into account their common features. Prospective avenues for further investigations have been suggested, with particular attention given to the most recent patterns in modern society which involve the satisfaction of their communicative requirements.
    Key words: verbal and non-verbal means, multimodality, semiotic resources, paralinguistic components, written communication.
    References:
    1. Chaudron, C., and Valcarcel, M. 1988. Second Language Classrooms: Research or Teaching and Learning. New York: Oxford University Press.
    2. Hamer, Geremy. 2001. “The Practice of English Language Teaching”. Longman Handbooks for Language Teachers.
    3. Rivers, W. M., and Temperley, M. S. 1987. A Practical Guide to the Teaching of English as a Second or Foreign Language. New York: Oxford University Press.
    4. Ur, Penny. 2008. A Course in English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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  21. Martyniuk O. Language Means of Expression of Comparative Constructions in the French literary discourse (on the material of the novel of Yasmina Khadra “What the Day Owes the Night”)- C. 143-147.
    The article examines main types of comparisons that are used in the discourse (on the material of the novel of Yasmina Khadra “What the Day Owes the Night”). The ways of using by the author a stylistic device for comparing the characteristics of the characters appearance, actions, processes, phenomena of nature, and so on are characterized. The lexical and grammatical models of comparison are described. In terms of semantics, comparative constructions in the discourse can be divided into the following groups: comparisons of expressing physical characteristics, intellectual and emotional characteristics. Any real phenomenon can serve the object of comparisons. Most often people, their appearance, character, ability are compared with animals, plants, objects, natural phenomena. A special originality of the author is felt in the description of landscapes.
    In addition, by analyzing the objects of comparison, it was found that one object can be interpreted through another based on certain common properties like subject and object of comparison. In most cases, these associations have a veiled sign of comparison.
    It was revealed that in comparative constructions the components themselves are not so important, but those associations that arise as a result of linguistic comparison. The interactive features of comparison were analysed, namely the impact on the recipient of the text, the management of its communicative and cognitive activity in accordance with the intent of the author. It is proved that the comparison helps to reveal the wealth of associative nuances of artistic speech, as it is the mechanism of verbalization of mental and emotional state of the characters.
    Key words: trope, comparisons, association, characterization, lexical and grammatical models.
    References:
    1. Matsko, Liubov. 2003. Stylistyka Ukrainskoii Movy. Kyiv: Vyshcha shkola.
    2. Moreau, François. 1982. L’image Littéraire. Paris: Société D’édition D’enseignement Supérieur.
    3. Cohen, Jean. 1968. “La Comparaison Poétique: Essai de Systématique”. Langages: Didier Larousse 12: 43–51.
    4. Khadra, Yasmina. 2008. Ce que le Jour Doit à la Nuit. Paris: Éditions Julliard.
    5. Monnet, Christiane. 1995. “La Comparaison en Amont ou en Aval de la Métaphore”. Faits de Langues 3 (5): 201–208.
    6. Heboyan, Esther. 2010. “La Figure de la Comparaison”. Artois Presses Université, coll. “Langues et Civilisations Étrangères”.
    7. La Comparaison, une Virtualité Fictionnelle. http://www.mshm.fr/diffusions/rusca/rusca-langueslitteratures/ Colloque-2007-Figure-et figuration/Resumes-Abstracts/La-figurationde-la-comparaison.
    8. Robrieux, Jean-Jacques. 2004. Les Figures de Style et de Rhetorique. Paris: Dunod.
    9. Smouchtchynska, Irina. 2010. Stylistique des Figures: les Tropes. Kiev: Logos.

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  22. Mazyar O. Various Approaches to Conversational Analyse. - C. 133-137.
    The urgency of investigation is determined by constant increase of scientific interest to the interplay of social relations and language. The aim of the work is based on the survey and classification of the existing approaches to the study of conversational analysis. The object of the article is modern theories and methodologies for the research of mechanisms of interaction of the speech act.
    The speech is considered as the collective action which is subordinated to the restrictions of social and cultural character. Every communication has its own structure and dynamics, the cultural presuppositions of which are determined by the content of all the remarks. The interlocuters decide what contextual category to choose: class, cultural or social identity. The collocutors can exchange remarks in turn or simultaneously. One of the crucial tasks of every speech act is its organization according to the principle of the alteration of remarks. A turn of speech is an interaction unit which can contain the majority of linguistic means: beginning with independent lexical constructions up to phrases, exclamations and other syntagmas. The important task of the ethnomethodology that is the problem of the existence of conterminal pairs is analysed in article. Conterminal pairs determine the structure of the dialog because these ones are the mutual component which is the basis of speech. Dialogue and conterminal pairs condition the problems around which the discussion develops. Thus, turns of speech and conterminal pairs are considered by the researchers as products of local system of organization which is conditioned by interpretations interactive strategies which depend on each culture and functional restrictions which influence the speech itself and system of communication on the whole.
    Communication is one of the most urgent linguistic investigations. Researchers emphasize linguistic peculiarities of speech and its social and cultural features. What happens during the speech act is not only linguistic competence of addresser and addressees, but structural and conditioned scheme. On the other hand there is distinct connection between speech and language on the whole, that is conversation is the means of communication which is based on diachronic and synchronic processes of language.
    Key words: communication, interplay, turns of speech, diachronic, synchronic.
    References:
    1. Bachmann, C., Lindenfeld C., and Simonin J., 1991. Langage et Communications Sociales. Paris: Crédif-Hatier/Didier, coll. LAL (Langues et Apprentissage des Langues).
    2. Baylon, Christian. 2005. Sociolinguistique. Société, Langue et Discour. Paris: Nathan Université.
    3. Meyer, Michel. 2010. Logique, Langage et Argumentation. Paris: Hachette.
    4. Thibault, Pierrette. 2000. Le Français Parlé: Études Sociolinguistiques. Edmonton, Alberta: Linguistic Research, Inc.

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  23. Navrotska I. Lexico-Semantic Aspect of Distiguishing Between Homonymy and Polysemy of English Nouns. - C. 147-153.
    The problem concerning distinguishing between homonymy and polysemy constitutes a real challenge for linguists in general and for lexicographers in particular and this article represents its practical solution. The essence of the problem can be explained from the viewpoint, that the notion and the meaning of the word may not always coincide which accounts for the difference of presentation of words not only in monolingual dictionaries but also in bilingual ones.
    The objective of our study is to find the most optimal way of distinguishing between homonymy and related phenomena such as pure polysemy, lexico-semantic variation, syncretism, heterosemy and homonymy of English nouns. These are the names of five internal lexico-semantic categories within the system of lexical meaning of the noun and the ratio between them varies depending on the semantics of the noun. Thus every meaning, called a lexico-semantic unit (LSO) in our study (according to the theoretical grounds of L. Kudrevatykh) is assigned a certain status due to the pointers picked up from the definitions of 353 nouns which were taken from 4 dictionaries. A pointer is the minimal word or word combination of the definition directly pointing at the meaning. The pointers referring to basically polysemous categories: pure polysemy, lexico-semantic variation, syncretism and sometimes heterosemy should have something in common. For instance, they may belong to a closely related thematic group or be hypo-hyperonically, metonymically or metaphorically related. We have found that heterosemy appears in cases when the explanation, drawn from etymological dictionaries is obscure for the speaker without special knowledge of additional connotations. Though the number of homonymous LSOs prevails over heterosemous LSOs, and there are nouns which have heterosemous LSOs but no homonymic ones, heterosemy shows the potential of the noun to develop towards homonymy.
    In the study we have used such criteria of distinguishing between homonymy and related phenomena: the etymological criterion, the formal-semantic criterion, the criterion of identical word formation ranges and the semantic-transformational one.
    Summing up, we should admit that the line between polysemous lexico-semantic categories and homonymy is very fragile. The evidence of homonymy cannot only be found in the dictionaries, it should be explored functionally, in the corpora.
    Key words: distinguishing between homonymy and polysemy, etymological criterion, formal-semantic criterion, criterion of identical word-formation ranges, semantic-transformational criterion, lexico-semantic categories, lexico-semantic units, heterosemy.
    References:
    1. Antonikova, Liudmila. 1988. “Perekhodnoi Klass Yavlienii Mezhdu Polisemiiei i Omonimiiei (Geterosemiia): na Materialie Angliiskogo Yazyka”. PhD diss. Moskva.
    2. Apresian, Yurii. 1993. Novyi Bolshoi Anglo-Russkii Slovar. http://www.classes.ru/dictionary-english-russian-Apresyan-term-19185.html.
    3. Boltianskaia, Regina. 1983. “Razgranichenie Polisemii i Omonimii v Sistiemie Angliiskogo Glagola”. PhD diss., Kiev.
    4. Budagov, Ruben. 1958. “O tak Nazyvaiemom Promezhutochnom Zvene v Smyslovom Razvitii Slova”. Sbornik Statei po Yazykoznaniiu, 73–85. Mosckva.
    5. Zhovtobryukh, Mykhaylo. 1959. Kurs Suchasnoi Ukrainskoi Movy. Kyiv: Radianska Shkola.
    6. Zagnitko, Anatoliy, and Danylyuk, Illia, eds. 2008. Velykyi Suchasnyi Anhlo-Ukrainskyi, Ukrayinsko-Anhliiskyi Clovnyk. Donetsk: BAO.
    7. Kocherhan, Mykhailo. 1980. Slovo i Contekst: Leksychna Spoluchuvanist i Znachennia Slova. Lviv: Vyshcha Shkola.
    8. Krytenko, Afanasii. 1962. “Tematychni Grupy Sliv i Omonimiia”. Sloiyanske Movoznavstvo 4: 198–211.
    9. Kudrevatykh, Ludmila. 1995. “Semanticheskii Tip Slova kak Yazykovaia Universaliia i Osobennosti Obucheniia Semanticheskim Tipam Slov”. www.kyu.edu.tw/93/95 pfper/v8/95-161.pdf.
    10. Lysychenko, Lidiya. 1977. Leksykologiia Suchasnoi Ukrainskoi Movy: Semantychna Struktura Slova. Kharkiv: Vyshcha Shkola.
    11. Novikov, Dmitrii. 2005. “Razgranicheniie Polisemii i Omonimii v Svete Kognitivnoi Lingvistiki (na Materiale Sovremennogo Angliiskogo Yazyka)”. PhD diss., Sankt Peterburg.
    12. Novikov, Lev. 1960. “Ob Odnom Sposobe Razgranicheniia Policemii i Omonimii”. Russkii Yazyk v Shkole 3: 10–14.
    13. Soldatova, Larysa. 2007. “Rozmezhuvannia Yavyshch Povnoi Leksychnoi Omonimii ta Polisemii (Slovnykovyi i Funktsionalno-Stylistychnyi Aspekty)”. PhD diss., Kiev: M. Dragomanov National Pedagogical University.
    14. Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. 2006. 11th Edition. Encyclopaedia Britannica Company.
    15. Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com.
    16. Summers, Della. 2003. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. New ed. Pearson Education.
    17. Weekley, Ernest. 1921. An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. London.

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  24. Nizhegorodtseva L. Author ′s abstract of scientific paper. - C. 153-160.
    The purpose of this article is to highlight the essential features of the theory of prototypes and to focus on the theoretical and practical aspects of arrangement of verbalized units that make the basis of the lexico-semantic field INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY. Some scientists (Greeraerts 1989, Rosh 1978) mark out four characteristics of a prototype that are frequently mentioned:
    1) prototypical categories cannot be defined by means of a single set of criterial (necessary and sufficient) attributes;
    2) prototypical categories exhibit a family-resemblance structure, or more generally, their semantic structure takes form of a radial set of clustered and overlapping meanings;
    3) prototypical categories exhibit degrees of category membership; not eevery member is equally representative for a category;
    4) prototypical categories are blurred at the edges.
    Practically the same features could be traced in any lexico-semantic field which makes it possible to integrate one set of theoretical postulates into another one. Thus, interpretations of prototypical categories that participate in the design of the lexical fields are also highlighted in the article.
    Quantitative stratification of lexical units and lexico-semantic versions is analysed within the limits of schemata of the lexico-semantic field INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY. Considering the data of quantitative analysis of lexico-semantic variants that name parts of the lexico-semantic field, the model of prototypical category of the investigated field is presented. Taking into account concepts, which are explicated by the slots of frame model, the structure of prototypical category INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY is proved. On the other hand, the reconstructed conceptual model allowed to offer an explanation of a number of linguistic phenomena, on the other hand it helps to understand patterns of organization of a certain area of the lexical system.
    Key words: cognitive linguistics, frame, prototype, lexico-semantic field, conceptual analysis.
    References:
    1. Dеmiankov, V. Z. 1995. “Dоminiruiushchiie Lingvisticheskiie Teorii”. Yazyk i Nauka Kontsa XX Veka, 239–320. Мoskva: Instityt Yazykoznaniia RAN.
    2. Dеmiankov, V. Z. 1994. “Teoriia Prototipov v Semantike i Pragmatike Yazyka”. Struktury Predstavleniia Znanii v Yazyke, 32–86. Мoskva: INION RAN.
    3. Dеmiankov, V. Z. 1997. Freim. In Kratkii Slovar Kognitivnykh Terminov, edited by Ye. S. Kubriakova and V. Z. Dеmiankov (“and other”), 187–189. Мoskva: Filologicheskii Fakultet MGU.
    4. Zhabotinskaia, S. A. 1999. “Kontseptualnyi Analiz: Tipy Freimov”. Visnyk Cherkaskoho Universytetu. Seriia “Filolohichni nauky” 11: 12–25.
    5. Kuznietsova, E. V. 1969. “Metod Stupenchatoi Identifikatsyi v Opisanii Leksiko-Semanticheskikh Grup Slov”. Problemy Modelirovaniia Yazyka 3 (2): 85–92. Tartu: Tartuskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet.
    6. Solso, R. L. 1996. Kognitivnaia psikhologiia. Мoskva: Trivola.
    7. Aitchison, J. 1990. “Language and Mind”. In An Encyclopeadia of Language, edited by N. E. Collinge, 333–370. London, New York: Routledge.
    8. Givon, T. 1986. “Prototypes: Between Plato and Wittgenstein”. Noun Classes and Categorization: Symposium on Categorization and Noun Classification Proceedings, 77–102. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamin’s Publishing Company.
    9. Jackendoff, R. S. 1996. “Conceptual Semantics and Cognitive Linguistics”. Cognitive Linguistics 7-1: 93–129.
    10. Lakoff, G. 1987. Women, Fire and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.
    11. Neumann, P. G. 1977. “Visual Prototype Formation with Discontinuous Representation of Dimentions of Variability”. Memory and Cognition 5: 187–197.
    12. Posner, M. I., and Keele S. W. 1968. “On the Genesis of Abstract Ideas”. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77: 353–363.
    13. Rosch, E. 1973. “Natural Categories”. Cognitive Psychology 4 (3): 328–350.
    14. Rosch, E. 1975. “Cognitive Representations of Semantic Categories”. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 104: 192–233.
    15. Taylor, J. R. 1995. Linguistic Categorization: Prototypes in Linguistic Theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    16. Wittgenstein, L. 1967. Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    17. Wierzbicka, A. 1985. Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis. Ann-Arbor: Karoma Publishers Inc.

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  25. Novak H., Leshchuk J. Artistic (individual) concept TIME in the poems of Paul Celan: peculiarities of its verbalization. - C. 127-133.
    The article deals with the modeling of the artistic concept TIME in the poetry of the German speaking poet of the Jewish origin Paul Celan. The concept is considered to be a dynamic value, the semantic structure of which is predetermined both by the changes, taking place in the society and in the consciousness of a separate person.
    The reasons for such a study are outlined in the article: the poetic texts of Paul Celan have been analyzed from the perspective of the literature, their lingual-cognitive character has not been properly researched yet. The poetic-cognitive approach allows us to analyze both the lingual and the extralingual plains of the poet’s texts.
    The poems of Paul Celan represent a coded system of mental framework of the poet, his artistic and aesthetic consciousness as well as the ways of conceptualizing of reality of that time from the perspective of Holocaust. The structure of the artistic concept is presented in the article as a hierarchical unity of the three elements ‒ ethno-cultural element, individual component and textual features. Ethno-cultural component of the artistic concept of Paul Celan includes texts of Jewish mysticism, ethics, the Bible and myths; individual component reflects the poet’s attitude to the world from the perspective of Holocaust; textual component, or explicit plan explicate the peculiarities of the verbalization of the artistic concept in the poems of Paul Celan.
    Key words: artistic concept, authorism, metaphor, oxymoron, synesthesia.
    References:
    1. Andrukhovych, Yurii. 2006. Dezoriientatsiia na Mistsevosti. Ivano-Frankivsk: Lileia-NV.
    2. Bibliia. 2004. Knyhy Sviashchennoho Pysannia Staroho ta Novoho Zapovitiv. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo Kyivskoi Patriarkhii.
    3. Tokariev, S. A., ed. 1987. Mify Narodov Mira: Entsyklopediia v 2 Tomakh. Tom 1. Moskva: Sovetskaia Entsyklopediia.
    4. Pahutiak, H. 2001. Sny Yulii i Hermana: roman. Kyiv: Yaroslaviv Val.
    5. Smirnova, A. V. 2000. “Poetika Romantizma i Poeticheskii Yazyk P. Tselana (na Primere Sravneniia Individualnykh Stilei Tselana i Novalisa)”. PhD diss., Russkii Gosudarstvennyi Pedagogicheskii Universitet Imeni A. I. Gertsena.
    6. Suznel, Annick de. 2003. Symvolika Liudskoho Tila. Translated by Z. P. Borysiuk. Kyiv: Znannia-Pres.
    7. Tselan, Paul. 2013. Mak i Pamiat: Poezii. Translated by P. Rykhla. Chernivtsi: Knyhy–XXI.
    8. Celan, Paul. 2005. Die Gedichte. Kommentierte Gesamt ausgabe. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    9. Felstiner, John. 1997. “Paul Celan. Eine Biographie”. München: C. H. Beck.
    10. Hertzberg, Arthur. 1981. Die großen Religionen der Welt. Der Judaismus. Stuttgart: Fackelverlag.
    11. Panati, Charles. 1998. Populäres Lexikon Religiöser Bräuche und Gegenstände. München: Piper Verlag GmbH.
    12. Toland, John. 2006. Adolf Hitler. Biographie 1889−1945. Augsburg: Weltbild.
    13. Wiedemann-Wolf, Barbara. 1985. Antschel Paul – Paul Celan: Studien zum Frühwerk. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.

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  26. Rohach O. The Language of War. - C. 161-167.
    This article is devoted to the semantic, structural and etymological analysis of the language of war that reflects the relationship between the participants of various military conflicts with consideration of the extralinguistic factors that caused its appearance and usage. Special attention is paid to the fact that the language of war is stylistically marked and that is why every slur, every stereotype, every nationalistic and racist assumption is a war without weapons. Words of racist and nationalistic intolerance can hurt, and in world history there are many examples of effective propaganda and informational wars. Such words may only be the reason, but their effect is potentially lethal. That is why their power must be studied and taken into a consideration. An analysis of the language of war also presupposes studies of national history, international relations and economic and cultural relations. The extralinguistic factors, mainly the historic ones, which explain the reasons why such words came into being have been taken into consideration. Special attention has been paid to the most productive word building patterns according to which the analyzed words were coined, such as affixation, blending and different types of shortening.
    Key words and phrases: language of war, national history, word building patterns, slur, stereotype.
    References:
    1. “Inozemni ZMI: Ton Merkel Vidnosno Rosii na G20 Zdyvuvav”. 2014. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/ukrainian/press_review/2014/11/141119_foreign_press.
    2. Lebediev, V. 2014. “Yevraziiets Dugin – Petrik Geopolitiki”. 2014. Lebed 721. http://lebed.com/2014/art6564.htm.
    3. “Russkii Mir (obshchnost)”. Wikipedia. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A0%D1%83%D1% 81%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%80_%28%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%89%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D1%8C%29
    4. “Titushki”. Wikipedia. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D2%E8%F2%F3%F8%EA%E8.
    5. “U Rosii Zavely Spravu na Khudozhnyka za Koloradskogo Zhuka”. 2015. Ukrainska Pravda Zhyttia. http://life.pravda.com.ua/culture/2014/12/11/185704/.
    6. Chekalkin, Dmitrii. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/Dmitriy.Chekalkin?fref=nf.
    7. Green, J. 1996. Words Apart. The Language of Prejudice. London: Kyle Cathie LTD. (Green 1996, 383).
    8. “Languages and the First World War: Trench Journals”. 2014. Social Science Blog. http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/socialscience/2014/06/languages-and-the-first-world-war:trench journals.
    9. “Lost in Pronunciation”. 2014. Social Science Blog. http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/socialscience/2014/06.

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  27. Rohach Y. Application of the Distributional and Descriptive Methods in Studies of Ideograms and Pictograms. - C. 161-171.
    This article is devoted to the description of the practical application of the two main methods of linguistic research: the descriptive and distributional methods. Special attention has been paid to considering these two methods and describing their procedures and practical applications, doing an analysis of two paralingual units – pictograms and idiograms – and then achieving conclusive results. We discovered that with the help of the descriptive method it was possible to describe and analyze the structure and typology of the pictograms and idiograms that are widely used in present day Australian newspapers. Attention was given to the correlation between the verbal and non-verbal elements of creol texts and to the realization of paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations of pictograms and idiograms. These connections point out the connectivity and cooperation of the visual units with the verbal units of a language system on phonological, morphological, lexico-semantic and syntactic levels. Realizing their combinability, pictograms and ideograms can be combined with units of the same type or with one or several verbal units. Besides such cases, their combinability can be implemented inside a pictogram, within the frames of an advertising message, a newspaper article or a newspaper in general, for example, in its title.
    Key words and phrases: pictograms and idiograms, descriptive and distributional methods, syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations, Australian mass-media means
    .References:
    1. Kocherhan, Mykhailo. 2003. Zahalne Movoznavstvo. Кyiv: Akademiia.
    2. Sukhorolska, S. M., and Fedorenko, O. I. 2009. Metody Linhvistychnykh Doslidzhen. Lviv: Іntelekt-Zakhid.
    3. Harris, Zellig Sabbettai. 1961. Methods in Structural Linguistics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    4. Richards, Jack C. 1999. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. Longman Group, UK.

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  28. Rozvod E. The role of streotypes in the formation and implementations of linguacultural concepts (on the basis of the concept SUN). - C. 172-178.
    The article deals with the notion of stereotype in the contemporary linguistic cultural studies. A special attention has been paid to its types, functions and ways of realization in language. The reference has been made to the subject and object of the implementation of the linguistic cultural concepts as well as to the fulfillment of the set tasks and the methods used in this research.
    In has been pointed out in the article that in 1922 the term stereotype was introduced into the social, cultural and psychological studies by the American scholar Walter Lippmann in his book “Public Opinion”. He understood stereotypes as pictures in our heads which simplify reality and said that stereotypes might not be a complete picture of the world but they are a picture of a possible world to which we were adapted.
    Different definitions of the notion stereotype in various fields of scientific knowledge have been analyzed. Thus we can assume that the main features of a stereotype are generalization, emotional colouring and stability.
    An important place in the study of the concepts` structure is occupied by stereotypes. Stereotypes can be true or partially true, but they are strong bias that can distort the reality and its perception. However, the system of stereotypes is the core of our national traditions, it protects our place in society and allows us to see the world and to perceive it and understand.
    All linguistic signs of a national culture are built on the perception of not only the meanings of words but of visual and auditory associations that native speakers bear. All the concepts and images are reflected in symbols, linguistic signs of culture, phraseology and create a national English language world.
    Key words: stereotype, culture, nation, linguistic map of the world, concept, structure.
    References:
    1. Chernova, G. V., ed. 1996. Amerikana: Anhlo-Russkii Linhvostranovedcheskii Slovar. Smolensk: Polyhramma.
    2. Bartminskii, E. 1997. “Еtnotsentrizm Stereotipa. Polskie i Nemetskie Studenty o Svoikh Sosediakh”. Slavianovedenye 1: 12–24.
    3. Batsevych, Florii. 2004. Osnovy Komunikatyvnoi Linhvistyky. Kyiv: Vydavnychyi Dim «Akademiia».
    4. Gumilev, Lev. 1990. Etnohenez i Biosfera Zemli. Leningrad: Izdatelstvo LHU.
    5. Danyliuk, Ivan. 2003. “Etnichnyi Stereotyp”. Etnosotsiolohiia: Terminy ta Poniattia, 121–123. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo UANNP “Feniks”.
    6. Demiankov, V. Z. 1996. “Stereotyp”. In Kratkii Slovar Kohnitivnykh Terminov, edited by V. Z. Demiankov, E. S. Kubriakova, Yu. H. Pankrats, L. H. Luzina, 177–179. Moskva: Fylologicheskii Fakultet MHU Imeni M. V. Lomonosova.
    7. Korolev, S. Y. 1979. “Psikhologicheskaia Orientatsyia v Etnopsikhologii. Mekhanizmy Subiektivatsyi”. Psykhologicheskiie Mekhanizmy Reguliatsyi Sotsyalnogo Poviedieniia, 20–43. Moskva.
    8. Martyniuk, A. P. 2003. “Henderni Stereotypy ta Yikh Vidobrazhennia u Movi ta Movlenni (na Materiali Anhliiskoi Movy)”. Visnyk Kyivskoho Linhvistychnoho Universytetu. Seriia “Filolohiia” 6 (1): 171–176.
    9. Maslova, V. A. 2001. Lynhvokulturolohiia. Moskva: Akademiia.
    10. Prokhorov, Yuryi. 2006. Natsyonalnyie Sotsyokulturnyie Stereotipy Rechevogo Obshcheniia i Ikh Rol v Obuchenii Russkomu Yazyku Inostrantsev. Moskva: KomKnyha.
    11. Selivanova, O. O. 2006. Suchasna Linhvistyka: Terminolohichna Entsyklopediia. Poltava: Dovkillia.
    12. Ter-Minasova, S. H. 2004. “Rol Yazyka v Formirovanii Lichnosti. Yazyk i Natsyonalnyi Kharakter”. In Etnosotsyolinhvistika, edited by N.Y. Konovalova, 241–249. Ekaterinburg.
    13. Yadov, V. 1970. “Sotsyalnyi Stereotyp”. Filosofskaia Entsyklopediia. Moskva: Sovetskaia Entsyklopedia.
    14. Lippman, Walter. 1950. Public Opinion. New York: W. W. Norton.
    15. “Sundae”. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sundae.

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  29. Savichuk V. Some Aspects of Content-Based Instruction in English for Economics Students(on the Basis of the Teaching Complex Intelligent Business). - C. 178-186.
    Applying content-based instruction for teaching Business English to Economics students realizes the methodological paradigm declared by the European Framework on Foreign Languages.The tasks of the work are to analyze the ways CBI is realized by means of the teaching complex in ESPBE Intelligent Business. The author applied the critical analysis of literary sources, learning and summarizing the positive teaching experience, observation and test teaching. The performed analysis proves that CBI applied by the authors of Intelligent Business uses the foreign language as a means of teaching content, and the latter, in its turn, serves as a means of learning the foreign language. Having analyzed the teaching course Intelligent Business, we can see that by means of integrating all four basic speech skills the authors try to suggest their ways to form a high level of the communicative competence of students. In order to achieve this purpose the course models professionally authentic activities using authentic teaching materials with the selected topics and the logical grammar content, being oriented on maintaining the self-direction of students.
    Key words: Content-based Instruction, English for Specific Purposes, Business English.
    References
    1. Savichuk, Valentyna. 2013. “Zastosuvannia Metodu, yakyi Hruntuietsia na Kontenti, u Navchanni Inozemnoi Movy Studentiv Ekonomichnykh Spetsialnostei (na Bazi Navchalno-Metodychnoho Kompleksu Intelligent Business)”. Naukovyi Visnyk SNU Imeni Lesi Ukrainky. Filolohichni Nauky. Movoznavstvo 20: 162–167.
    2. Savichuk, Valentyna. 2009. “Zastosuvannia Proektnoi Metodyky u Vykladanni Anhliiskoi Dilovoi Movy dla Studentiv Spetsialnosti Turyzm”. Naukovyi Visnyk SNU Imeni Lesi Ukrainky. Filolohichni Nauky. Movoznavstvo 6: 129–133.
    3. Barrall, Irene. 2006. Intelligent Business: Teacher’s Book (Pre-Intermediate). Harlow: Pearson.
    4. Barrall, Irene, and Barrall, Nikolas. 2006. Intelligent Business: Workbook (Pre-Intermediate). Harlow: Pearson.
    5. Bhatia, Vijay K. 2004. World of Written Discourse. London, New York: Continuum.
    6. Carter, David. 1983. “English for Specific Purposes: International in Scope, Specific in Purpose”. TESOL Quarterly 25: 207–214.
    7. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. 2001. Strasbourg: Language Policy Unit, 273.
    8. Dudley-Evans, T. and St. John, M. J. 1998. Development in ESP: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Cambridge: CUP.
    9. Ellis, M. and Johnson, C. 2001. Teaching Business English. Oxford: OUP.
    10. Hutchinson, T., Waters, A. 1987. English for Specific Purposes. Cambridge: CUP.
    11. Johns, A. M., and Dudley-Evans, T. 1991. “English for Specific Purposes: International in Scope, Specific in Purposes”. TESOL Quarterly, 25: 297–314.
    12. Johnson, Ch. 2006. Intelligent Business. Coursebook (Pre-Intermediate). Harlow: Pearson.
    13. Johnson, Ch. 2006. Intelligent Business: Style Guide (Pre-Intermediate). Harlow: Pearson.
    14. Mohan, B. 1986. Language and Content. Addison: Wesley.
    15. Murphy, L. 1997. “Content-Based Instruction in English Foreign Language Setting”. Content-Based Classroom. Perspectives in Integrating Language and Content, 117–131. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.
    16. Nelson, M. A. 2000. A Corpus-based Study of the Lexis of Business English and Business English Teaching Materials. Manchester: University of Manchester. http: // users.utu.fi/micnel/thesis.html.
    17. Picket, D. 1989. “The Sleeping Giant: Investigations in Business English”. Language International 5: 5–11.
    18. Powell, M. 2005. “Blur: 21st Century Business English”. Keynote Speech at the IATEFL BESIG STETS Conference.
    19. Richards, J. C. 2001. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. USA, Cambridge.
    20. Richards, J. C., and Rodgers, T. S. 2002. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP.
    21. Strevens, P. 1988. “ESP after Twenty Years: A Re-appraisal”. ESP: State-of-the-Art 1–13. Singapore: SEAMEO.
    22. Stryker S. B., and Leaver, B. L. 1977. Content-Based Instruction in Foreign Languages Education. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Un-ty Press.
    23. Trimble, C. 1992. English for Science and Technology: A Discourse Approach. New York: CUP.
    24. Zhang, Z. C. 2005. Business English: A Discourse Approach. Beijing: University of International Business and Economics Press.

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  30. Sorokina L. Communicative Strategy vs. Manipulative Strategy. - C. 187-191.
    The article deals with the analysis of a communicative strategy as a device for manipulative communication. The latter is represented in the article as a special type of cognitive and pragmatic activity. The characteristics of various approaches to the study of communicative strategies and tactics is given. The comparative analysis of communicative and manipulative strategies is performed. The differentiation of two types of goals: pragmatic and constructive (defined by O.M. Morohovskyi) has become the key element in the determination of distinction between communicative and manipulative strategies. The particularities of manipulative strategies and tactics functioning are demonstrated. The analysis of a notion of strategy proves that manipulative communicative strategy is determined by the existence of two pragmatic aims – one of which fulfils the role only functionally, i.e. is a transitionary aim, the second one is regarded as a the real aim of a manipulator. The interactive planning process of a manipulative strategy involves a duality of manipulator’s communicative background assumption: an intention to satisfy his / her own requirements, using the addressee’s requirements without showing a conflict of interests. In the study manipulative strategy is regarded as an integrative notion that combines two aspects of strategic action – cognitive and verbal.
    Key words: manipulative communication, strategy, tactic, pragmatic aim, dialogical discourse.
    Скачати

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  31. Tarasiuk I. Психолінгвістичний аспект аналізу семантики мовлення дітей мігрантів. - C. 192-198.
    The results of diagnostic of speech semantic of immigrant children with the help of an associative test have been described in the article. The reactions to the word stimuli were classified into logical type of connections (central and peripheral logical reactions) and their grammar features (syntagmatic and paradigmatic reactions). The interpretation of got results is presented stepwise in the article. At first it is shown the comparative analyses of two groups of respondents – the children of ethnic German families and the children of immigrants. Then there are demonstrated the differences between types of visited schools and gender aspect. The children of ethnic German families feel their native speech intuitively, but the children of immigrants face not only the problem of adapting to the new cultural and social environment, but to the speech as well. That is why it is not easy for them to recognize the center and the peripheral means of words. In many cases, the words by the children of immigrants, as lexical units, don’t have their conceptual means, don’t reflect their view of reality, don’t express their experience, but only show the direct lexical means. The results of the associative experiment demonstrate the influence of social environment of students on their speech adaptation. There are also some gender peculiarities of their speech adaptation figured out.
    Keywords: the children of immigrants, association, associative experiment, word stimuli, word reaction, logical central, peripheral connections, grammatical syntagmatic and paradigmatic connections.
    References
    1. Goroshko, Yelena. 2001. Integrativnaya Model Svobodnogo Assotsiativnogo Eksperimenta. Moskva: Institut Yazykoznaniia RAN.
    2. Hlukhov, V. P. 2005. Osnovy Psikholinhvistiki. Moskva: AST “Astrel”.
    3. Zalevskaia, A. A. 2000. Vvedeniye v Psykholinhvistiku. Moskva: Rossiiskii Hosudarstvennyi Humanitarnyi Universitet.
    4. Zasiekina, Larysa, and Zasiekin Serhii. 2002. Vstup do Psykholinhvistyky. Ostroh: Vydavnytstvo Natsionalnoho Universytetu “Ostrozka Akademiia”.
    5. Zasiekina, Larysa. 2009. “Chuttia Movy yak Vazhlyvyi Psykholinhvistychnyi Fenomen”. Psykholinhvistyka. Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi: PP “SKD” 4: 3–51.
    6. Leontev, A. A. 2005. Osnovy Psikholinhvistiki. Moskva: Smysl.
    7. Serkin, V. P. Metody Psykholohii i Subyektyvnoi Semantyky i Psykhosemantyky. Moskva: Pchela.
    8. Tarasiuk, Inna. 2013. “Psykholohichni Osoblyvosti Movlennievoi Adaptatsii Ditei Mihrantiv do Inshomovnoho Seredovyshcha”. PhD diss., Skhidnoievropeiskyi Natsionalnyi Universytet Imeni Lesi Ukrainky.
    9. Frumkyna, R. M. 2001. Psikholinhvistika. Moskva: Akademyia.
    10. Dshenkova, Ekaterina. 2007. “Sprache – Forschung – Migration. Linguisten mit internationalen Biographien als Migranten”. Ost – West Perspektiven: Migrationen und Migranten 7: 269–280.
    11. Trier, Jost. 1931. Der deutsche Wortschatz im Sinnbezirk des Verstandes. Die Geschichte eines sprachlichen Feldes. Bd. 1. Von den Anfängen bis zum Beginn des 13. Jahrhunderts. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.

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  32. Trotsiuk A., Honchar K. Adjectival Lexico-Semantic Microfield of Indifference in Modern English. - C. 41-46.
    The article deals with the lexico-semantic microfield of adjectives expressing the meaning “indifference” in modern English. The analysis is based on lexicographical sources. The investigated lexico-semantic microfield is a constituent part of the nominative macrofield of indifference. The structure of the adjectival microfield consists of a nucleus, co-nuclear and peripheral areas, boundaries between which are blurred, as an individual lexico-semantic variant can be a constituent of several zones. The analyzed microfield is reconstructed on the basis of semantic analysis of lexical units with a meaning “indifferent”. The nucleus of the investigated adjectival lexico-semantic microfield is an adjective “indifferent”, as it possesses distinct features of the field dominants (highly frequent, abstract, stylistically neutral) and can replace any of the members of the paradigm for it is the main representative of this paradigm. Componential analysis of the nuclear lexeme makes it possible to single out the archiseme of the researched microfield “disinterested, unemotional”. This archiseme is a field identifier and its notion is more or less presented in the definitions of all units of adjectival microfield of indifference. Co-nuclear zone consists of the synonyms of indifferent and other lexemes, definitions of which contain explicitly expressed archiseme which is “disinterested, unemotional”. Close periphery zone of the adjectival lexico-semantic microfield of indifference consists of those units that are slightly different in their meaning from the nuclear lexeme. Adjectives that belong to the close periphery may be classified into three groups according to the common semantic characteristic: a) those that have the seme “lacking emotions and other feelings”, b) lexical units grouped by the seme “not showing any concern or sympathy to others” and c) the adjectives with the common seme “not affected/not influenced by others”. Lexical units that have lost some main features and gained new qualifying meanings belong to the remote periphery of the investigated field. They are classified according to the two common semes: “not wanting or wishing to do anything” and “not willing to make any effort or improve anything”. Nominative units with low frequency and limitation in usage refer to the marginal layer of the adjectival lexico-semantic microfield of indifference.
    Key words: lexico-semantic microfield, archiseme, nucleus, qualifying seme, indifference, componential analysis.
    References:
    1. Beloborodova, Anna. 2011. “Reprezentatsyia Kontsepta «Bezrazlichiie/Indifference» Frazeologizmami Russkogo i Angliiskogo Yazykov: Lingvokulturologicheskii Aspekt”. Ph.D. diss., Cheliabinsk.
    2. Bosova, L. M. 1997. Problema Sootnosheniia Semanticheskikh i Smyslovykh Polei Kachestvennykh Prilagatelnykh. Barnaul: Izd-vo Altaiskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta.
    3. Vasilev, L. M. 1971. “Teoriia Semanticheskikh Polei”. Voprosy Yazykoznaniia 5: 105–113.
    4. Busel, V. T., ed. 2005. Velykyi Tlumachnyi Slovnyk Ukrainskoi Movy. Kyiv; Irpin: Perun.
    5. Golubtsov, Sergei. 1999. “Semantika i Pragmatika Pokazateliei Bezrazlichiia: Sopostavitelnyi Aspekt (na Materiale Russkogo i Angliiskogo Yazykov)”. PhD diss., Krasnodar.
    6. Kuznetsov, A. M. 1971. “O Primenenii Metoda Komponentnogo Analiza v Leksike”. Sinhronno-Sopostavitelnyi Analiz Yazykov Raznykh Sistem, 257–268. Moskva: Nauka.
    7. Kuznetsov, A. M. 1980. Strukturno-Semanticheskiie Parametry v Leksike (na Materiale Angliiskogo Yazyka). Moskva: Nauka.
    8. Nikitin, M. V. 1996. Kurs Lingvisticheskoi Semantiki. Sankt-Pietierburg: Nauchnyi Tsentr Problem Dialoga.
    9. Dal, V. I., ed. 2005. Tolkovyi Slovar Russkogo Yazyka. Gorno-Altajsk: Eksmo-Press, 2005.
    10. Ozhegov, S. I., ed. 2014. Tolkovyi Slovar Russkogo Yazyka. Moskva: Oniks 21 vek.
    11. Ufimtseva, A. A. 1961. “Teorii Semanticheskogo Polia i Vozmozhnosti Ikh Primeneniia pri Izuchenii Slovarnogo Sostava Yazyka”. Voprosy Teorii Yazykov Sovremennoi Zarubezhnoi Lingvistiki. 48–64. Moskva: Nauka.
    12. Shchur, G. S. 1974. Teorii Polia v Lingvistike. Moskva: Nauka.
    13. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. 2010. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    14. The New Lexicon Webster’s Dictionary of the English Language. 1987. New York: Lexicon Publications, Inc.
    15. Webster’s New World College Dictionary. Fifth Edition. 2014. Webster’s New World.

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  33. Vorobiova Т. Implementation of Effective Formative Assessment Methods in the Process of Teaching English for Professional Communication. - C. 31-36.
    The article deals with theoretical approaches, innovative ways and methods of improving the content and technology of assessing students’ achievements in the process of learning English. This article shows manageable and sensitive ways of dealing with assessment taking into account diverse needs of the students who study English for their professional needs. A brief overview of the main assessment issues is provided. Two main types of assessment, summative and formative, and their characteristic features have been described. The usage of both summative and formative assessment in the foreign language classroom is analyzed and compared. The emphasis is put on the formative assessment as the assessment for learning, an integral part of the learning process and its main principles and peculiarities. The article provides theoretical background on formative assessment and explores innovative ways of developing formative assessment tasks in order to assess students’ skills in foreign language learning aimed at the formation of the professional communicative competence. The author highlights assessments in all language skills and investigates how assessment can contribute to the development of foreign language competence, and proves that it provides feedback to both teachers and students about how the course is going. The main types of formative assessment activities are outlined as well.
    Key words: assessment, formative assessment, summative assessment, foreign language competence, language skills, learning process, English for professional communication.
    References:
    1. Bogolepova, Svetlana. 2013. “Formiruyushchee Otsenivanie v Praktike Prepodavatelya Inostrannogo Yazyka”. http://lomonosov-msu.ru/archive/Lomonosov_2013/2168/14033_c077.pdf.
    2. Sheverun, Nadiia. 2013. “Osoblyvosti Otsinyuvannya ta Sertyfikatsiyi Navchalnykh Dosyahnen Studentiv z Inozemnykh Mov v Universytetakh Polshchi”. http://www.lnu.edu.ua/Pedagogika/periodic/ukrpol3t/tom1/45_ sheverun.pdf.
    3. Sherstyuk, L. V. 2010. Realizatsiya Tekhnolohiyi Kompleksnoyi Dyferentsiatsiyi Navchannya Inozemnykh Mov Studentiv Nefilolohichnykh Spetsialnostey Vyshchykh Navchalnykh Zakladiv: Metodychni Rekomendatsiyi. Mykolayiv: Vyd-vo ChDU Imeni Petra Mohyly.
    4. Black, P., and Wiliam, Dylan. 1998. “Assessment and Classroom Learning”. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice 5/1: 1–65.
    5. Dodge, Judith. 2009. 25 Quick Formative Assessments For a Differentiated Classroom. Scholastic Teaching Resources.
    6. Marshall, Bethan. 2007. “Assessment in English”. ITE English: Readings for Discussion. http://www.ite.org.uk/ite_readings/assessment_20071130.pdf.
    7. Stiggins, Richard J., and Arter, Judith A., and Chappuis, Jan, and Chappuis, Stephen. 2009. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing It Right-Using It Well. Allyn & Bacon.
    8. Torrance, H., and Pryor, J. 1998. Investigating Formative Assessment. Teaching, Learning and Assessment in the Classroom. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    9. Tuttle, Harry Grover, and Tuttle, Allan. 2013. Improving Students’ Foreign Language Speaking Through Formative Assessment. Routledge.
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  34. Yushak V. The Conceptual Metaphor SOFTWARE IS A MAGICAL CREATURE/THING in the Onomastic Group of Softonyms. - C. 204-209.
    In the research softonyms are defined as modern English proper names used to designate computer programmes. This study reveals that one of the main means of software products’ nomination is metaphor.
    The metaphorical softonyms realize persuasive function – they draw computer users’ attention to software products. Such names evoke positive images, associations and emotions. The study shows that metaphor is an effective means of establishing a contact between software developers and computer users. Softonyms, built on the basis of metaphorical transfer, contain some hidden information. A computer user, activating his thinking and imagination, decodes the message, created by a software developer.
    The article studies the conceptual metaphor SOFTWARE IS A MAGICAL CREATURE/THING as one of the means of softonyms wordformation. Through the metaphorical projection from the source domain MAGICAL CREATURE/THING into the target domain SOFTWARE the functions of computer programmes are compared with unrealistic and super-power features of magical creatures. The names of mythological creatures in softonyms structures create the effect of mystery, draw nearer to something unreal and mystical. Software developers, using famous symbolic proper names in softonyms, provide computer programmes with a certain set of characteristics. Metaphorical softonyms possess a high level of recognition as there is no need to represent the behavior models of mythological, historical, literary heroes to the representatives of the English linguocultural community. The study of software products names proves that the conceptual metaphor SOFTWARE IS A MAGICAL CREATURE/THING actualizes the charactersistics of computer programmes, important for the software users, such as power, high speed, ease of use, innovation, multifunctionality.
    Key words: softonym, nomination, conceptual metaphor, source domain, target domain.
    References:
    1. Oliinyk, Tetyana, ed. 2000. Anglo-Ukrainskyi Slovnyk Vlasnyh Nazv ta Imen. Ternopil: Pidruchnyky i Posibnyky.
    2. Biskub, Iryna. 2009. Anglomovnyi Dyskurs Programnogo Zabezpechennya yak Model Movlennyevoi Vzayemodii Lyudyny i Kompyutera. Lutsk: Volynskyi Natsionalnyi Universytet Imeni Lesi Ukraiinky. (Biskub 2009, 388).
    3. Vinogradov, Venedikt. 2001. Vvedenie v Perevodovedenie (Obschiye i Leksicheskie Voprosy). Moskva: Institut Obschestvennogo Srednego Obrazovaniya RAO.
    4. Sklyarevska, Galyna. 1993. Metafora v Sisteme Yazyka. Sankt-Peterburg: Nauka.
    5. Arutyunova, Nina, ed. 1990. Teoriya Metafory. Moskva: Progress.
    6. Fillipovych, Yurii. 2002. Metafory Informatsyonnyh Tehnologiy: Rabochiye Materialy Issledovaniya. Moskva: Izdatelstvo Moskovskogo Gosudarstvyennogo Universityeta Pechati. http://it-claim.ru/Library/Books/Metaphors_it/contents.htm.
    7. Fauconnier, Gilles, and Turner, Mark. 2002. The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind’s Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.
    8. Feig, Barry. 1997. Marketing Straight to the Heart. New York: AMACOM.
    9. Kövecses, Zoltán. 2002. Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    10. Lakoff, George. 2003. Metaphors We Live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    11. Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/
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  35. Zasiekin S. Literary Translation Dynamics in the Context of “Retranslation Hypothesis”. - C. 71-76.
    The present paper outlines an attempt to verify the validity of the “Retranslation Hypothesis” suggested by A. Berman (1990) using parallel English-Ukrainian corpus of translated fiction. According to the hypothesis, each subsequent, i.e. more recent (re)translations tend to be more source culture oriented than first translations. This tendency is viewed as a possible translation universal. The principal sources were The Fellowship of the Ring, and The Hobbit, or, There and Back Again by J. R. R. Tolkien as the source texts, and their Ukrainian target versions produced by A. Nemirova, A. Veselovskyi, O. Mokrovolskyi, O. O’Lear. Among the main markers of the analysis were the number of negative constructions, causal discourse markers on the syntactic level. The use of these discourse markers by the translator revealed a phenomenon known as ‘explicitation’. The lexical markers were represented by toponyms and anthroponyms being more or less “domesticated” to the target cultural background. The obtained results of the study show the hypothesis clearly has a general value for the selected English–Ukrainian parallel corpus of fiction.
    Key words: “Retranslation Hypothesis”, translation universal, translation of fiction, parallel corpus.
    References:
    1. Zasiekin, S. V. 2012. Psykholingvistychni Universalii Perekladu Khudozhnioho Tekstu. Lutsk: Lesia Ukrainka Volyn National University.
    2. Korpus Tekstiv Ukrainskoi Movy [The Corpus of the Ukrainian Language]. http://www.mova.info/corpus.aspx?l1=209.
    3. Radchuk, V. 2006. “Zabobon Neperekladnosti (Chy pid Sylu Movi Tarasa Pereklad tsytat?)”. Naukovyi Chasopys NPU imeni Mykhaila Drahomanova 9 (1): 329–336.
    4. Baker, M. 1999. “The Role of Corpora in Investigating the Linguistic Behaviour of Translators”. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 4(2): 281–298.
    5. Berman, A. 1990. “La Retraduction Comme Espace de Traduction”. Palimpsestes 13: 1–7.
    6. Bloch, I. 2005. “Sentence Splitting as an Expression of Translationese”. Seminar Paper, Bar Ilan University. Retrieved from: http://www.biu.ac.il/hu/stud-pub/tr/tr-pub/bloch-split.htm#_Toc123889309.
    7. Dastjerdi, H. V. and Mohammadi, A. 2013. “Revisiting «Retranslation Hypothesis»: A Comparative Analysis of Stylistic Features in the Persian Retranslations of Pride and Prejudice”. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics 3(3): 174–181.
    8. Desmidt, I. 2009. “(Re)translation Revisited”. Meta: Translators’ Journal 54(4): 669–683.
    9. Koskinen, K., and Papoloski, O. 2004. “Thousand and One Translations: Revisiting Retranslation”. In Claims, Changes and Challenges, edited by G. Hansen, K. Malmkjaer, & D. Gile, 27–38. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    10. Newmark, P. 1988. Approaches to Translation. London: Prentice Hall.
    11. Olohan, M., and Baker, M. 2000. “Reporting «That» in Translated English: Evidence for Subliminal Processes of Explicitation?” Across Languages and Cultures 1(2): 141–158.
    12. Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel. 1954. The Fellowship of the Ring. London: George Allen & Unwin.
    13. Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel. 1981. The Hobbit, or, There and Back Again. London: Unwin.
    14. Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel. 2003. Volodar Persniv: Khranyteli Persniv. Translated by Alina Nemirova. Kharkiv: Folio.
    15. Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel. 2006. “Staryi Lis”. Translated by Аndrii Veselovskyi. Vsesvit 11–12: 124–135.
    16. Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel. 1985. Hobit abo Mandrivka za Imlysti Hory. Translated by Оlexandr Mokrovolskyi. Кyiv: Veselka.
    17. Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel. 2012. Hobit abo Tudy i Zvidty. Translated by Оlena О’Lear. Lviv: Astroliabia.
    18. Zasyekin, Serhii. 2010. “Translation as a Psycholinguistic Phenomenon”. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 39(3): 225–234. New York: Springer Verlag.

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  36. Zastrovskyi O., Adjabi Y. The Semantical Level of Language Personality. The Different Word Interpretation among the Arabs and Germans. - C. 5-11.
    In our article we try to elucidate the intercultural aspect of word interpretations from the point of view of German linguistic personality and the correspondence with the Arabic perception. The appearance of such linguistics differences are constantly to observe while process of communication that explain the relation between language behavior and interpretation of words. The consequence appearing are put intentionally certain cultural, religious, social, national and linguistic features of communicants in which meet different conceptual systems and new associations appear different. In the German perception of Arabic words is learned the language of a culture, because language reflects primarily the culture of ethnic groups. These word interpretations could sometimes be completely misunderstood because it is not related to the proper application of other Community language or social group. These phenomenons occur actually in the Arabic and German linguistics communities or social groups. Besides several factors take part in the appearance of words interpretations between Arabs and German during the communications process, for example cultural, social, religion and political incidents which are distinguished by constant mutual effects and reactions between Arabic world and Germany. By using Arabic words in a German context can be the meaning of word either comprehend other falsely interpreted and introduced in a context because of the considerable ignorance of the other communicant. Nowadays such observations are varying in different words and expression, particularly in the German and Arabic language behavior. The formation and development of language personality of a person occurs primarily through the process of interpretation of the meanings of words, because the interpretation of these concepts is understood as an important component of his linguistic identity.
    The importance of social factors for the formation and perception of linguistic identity is that the language environment of the individual is transmitted to him through social and linguistic interactions.
    Key words: intercultural communication, language personality, interpretation, perception, intercultural semantics, interaction.
    References:
    1. Abdel-Qadir, G. 1999. Spatzenmilch und Teufelsdreck. Interkulturelles Taschenbuch. Berlin: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.
    2. Broszinsky, S. 2011. Interkulturelle Kommunikation: Missverständnisse- Verständigung. Heidelberg: VS Verlag.
    3. Fischer, H. D., and Uerpmann, H. 1999. Einführung in die Deutsche Sprachwissenschaft. München.
    4. Fishman, J. 1975. Soziologie der Sprache. Eine Interdisziplinäre Sozialwissenschaftliche Betrachtung der Sprache in Gesellschaft. München: Max Hueber Verlag.
    5. Günthner, S. 1993. Diskursstrategien in der Interkulturellen Kommunikation. Analyse Deutsch-Chinesischer Gespräche. Tübingen.
    6. Kaelble, H. 1997. Fremde Freunde. Araber, Franzosen und Deutsche vor dem 21. Jahrhundert. München.
    7. Knapp, K. 1996. “Interpersonale und Interkulturelle Kommunikation”. In Interkulturelles Management, herausgegeben von Niels Bergemann, und Andreas Sourisseaux. Heidelberg.
    8. Kühn, P. 2006. Interkulturelle Semantik. Köln: Maximilian Verlag.
    9. Kuße, H. 2012. Kulturwissenschaftliche Linguistik: eine Einführung. Göttingen: Verlag Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.
    10. Maletzke, G. 2012. Interkulturelle Kommunikation. Zur Interaktion Zwischen Menschen Verschiedener Kulturen. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
    11. Müller-Jacquier, B. 1999. Persönlichkeit und Fremdsprachendidaktik. Uni Koblenz-Landau.
    12. Neuner, G. 1991. Lerner Orientierte Wortschatzauswahl und – Vermittlung. München: Deutsch als Fremdsprache Verlag.
    13. Storch, G. 1999. Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Eine Didaktik. Stuttgart.
    14. Veith, W. 2002. Soziolinguistik: ein Arbeitsbuch mit Kontrollfragen und Antworten. Tübingen: Narr Verlag.
    15. Ginka, Boghdan, und Zine, Roman. (Hrsg.). 2008. Was ist Deutsch? Stereotypen und Realitäten. Ternopel: Boghdan.

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  37. Zhulinska M., Smolyar N. Internet-memes as information units in a cyberspace. - C. 66-71.
    The article deals with the problem of memes as units of information in Internet-environment which appeared as a result of distribution in a cyberspace. Regularities of the origin of Internet-memes, reasons of their popularity and peculiarities of functioning in the Internet are analysed in the article. Attention has been devoted to the history of origin of concepts “meme”, “Internet-meme” and “memetics”, their determination is given. Basic approaches in relation to interpretation of the term “meme” are expounded. The features of the appearance of “internet-meme” as the special social phenomenon with the popularization of computer networks are described.
    Internet-memes are considered as special kinds of precedent phenomena, units of information transmitted via Internet communication. Examples of the most popular Internet-memes which appeared in a cyberspace during the last years and their original sources are presented. Types of the Internet-memes and the most widespread spheres of their functioning are set, their main components and natural features are underlined. In the article principal reasons of the attractiveness and duration of the Internet-memes, and also their functions, in Internet environment are analysed.
    Key words: meme, Internet-meme, communicative function, cultural information, Internet-communication, distribution of information, memetics.
    References:
    1. Blinova, N. M. 2013. Redaktsiino-Vydavnyche Opratsiuvannia Zapozychenoi Leksyky u Movi Internet-ZMI”. Derzhava ta Rehiony. Seriia “Humanitarni Nauky” 4: 103–111.
    2. Gavrilina, Tatiana. 2013. “O Сhom s Nami Govoriat Internet-Memy”. TurboSeo. http://turboseo.net.ua/blogue/internet_meme.htm.
    3. Zai, Alina. 2015. “Na Zminu «Kiborham» – «Tarhany»”. http://pravdatyt.com/news/276/.
    4. “Internet-Memy v Suchasnomu Kiberprostori”. 2010. http://webcommunity.org.ua/2010/09/16/internet-memy-v-suchasnomu-kiberprostori/.
    5. “Mem”. Vikipediia. http://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Мем
    6. “Naividomishyi Kit na YouTube Zniavsia v Reklami Koniachoho Kormu”. 2013. Ukrainski Novyny. http://ukranews.com/news/92883.—.uk
    7. “Naipopuliarnishi Internet-Memy 2013 roku”. 2013. Ukrainskа Pravda. http://www.pravda.com.ua/inozmi/bbc/.
    8. “Novyi Internet-Mem: «Montazh Domashnoho Kota»”. 2014. Dobre Misto. http://www.dobremisto.com/novij-internet-mem-montazh-domashngo-kota/.
    9. “Populiarnyie Internet-Memy”. 2014. Fishki-Net. http://fishki.net/1268698-populjarnye-internet-memy.html.
    10. Sokolova, K. 2012. “Memy yak Zasib Komunikatsii v Internet-Seredovyshchi”. Humanitarnyi Chasopys 1: 118–123.
    11. Stoletov, Anton. 2012. “Setevaya Lingvistika”. Memy i Mediavirusy. http://www.marketing.spb.ru/lib-around/science/netlinguistics.htm.
    12. Tschurina, Yulia. 2012. “Internet-Memy kak Phenomen Internet-Kommunikatsyi”. Filologiia 3: 160–171. http://www.nauka-dialog.ru/userFiles/file/%20Юлия%20Васильевна.pdf.
    13. Beal, Vangie. 2014. “Internet Meme”. Webopedia. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/internet_ meme.html.
    14. Dennett, Daniel C. 2001. The Evolution of Culture. http//www.edge.org/3rd_culture/dennett/dennett_p1.html.
    15. Gil, Paul. 2013. “What is a «Meme»? What Are Examples of Modern Internet Memes?”. About tech. http://netforbeginners.about.com/od/weirdwebculture/f/What-Is-an-Internet-Meme.htm.
    16. Hardman, Isabel. 2014. “The Menace of Memes: How Pictures can Paint a Thousand Lies”. The Spectator. http://blogs.spectator.co.uk/author/isabel-hardman/.
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Бібліографія

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  3. Близнюк Л. Опис людини і природи у фреймових структурах (на матеріалі англомовного художнього дискурсу) / Л. Близнюк, С. Козак // Актуальні питання іноземної філології. – 2015. – № 2. – С. 18-22
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  16. Кінах Л. Парадигматичні та синтагматичні властивості субстантивованого прикметника сучасної німецької мови / Л. Кінах, А. Приходько // Актуальні питання іноземної філології. – 2015. – № 2. – С. 91-97
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  22. Лещук Ю. Художній концепт “Zeit” (“час”) у поезії Пауля Целана: особливості мовної об’єктивації / Ю. Лещук, Г. Новак // Актуальні питання іноземної філології. – 2015. – № 2. – С. 127-133
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  30. Розвод Е. Роль стереотипів у формуванні та реалізації лінгвокультурних концептів(на прикладі концепту “Sun”) / Е. Розвод // Актуальні питання іноземної філології. – 2015. – № 2. – С. 172-178
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