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  3. Andriyevska V. The Image of Consumerism in the Novels by F. Beigbeder: Linguistic and Cognitive Aspects. - C. 9-13.

    The article deals with the linguistic and cognitive aspects of research of the novels by F. Beigbeder. The aim of the article is to reveal semantic means of expression of the image of the consumers’ society in French modern novel. The author of this article sets the following goals: to present the image of the person of ХХІ century, to define the domains of human activity, which had gone through the hugest changes as well as to expose the factors that stipulated these changes. In novels by Beigbeder the modern society is a society with no moral values and sense of life, where everything can be bought and everything is for sale. At the linguistic level the last is proved by the use of verbs « acheter » and « vendre » in the passive form. In the modern world a human being, love, happiness, and even colors are for sale at one level with the other consumption commodities. The metaphor L’HOMME EST UN PRODUIT finds its linguistic expression in the text of the novel « 99 francs ». In the modern world the important factor of influence on a person is an advertisement. The aim of this part of the research is to identify the pragmatic and linguistic mechanisms of advertisement and the tricks it uses in order to influence our mind. It captured all spheres of human life: television, press, sport etc. ХХІ century is announced the century of the Third World War, war of advertisement against humanity. The lexeme « cible » testifies the purposefulness and determination of such fight. The modern people replaced God by the consumption commodities, and their beliefs and persuasions – by the trade labels. But the paradox is obvious: when your out is filled, your inner screams about the misfortune. The modern society is unhappy. Today under happiness we understand Nestlé, and under a blue color we present the bottle of Pepsi. We do not even know where are the limits of this all-absorbing and all-swallowing power of purchases. The brands share the world and man ceases to be its Master, it is advertisement that is. So the Third World War, is it our failure or perhaps a challenge to accept? …

    Key words: consumerism, advertisement, consumer, trade label, metaphor, French modern novel.

  4. Avdeyenko T. Linguistic and Cultural Peculiarities of English Language Realia - C. 5-9.
    The article deals with the problem of English ethnospecific language units in the aspect of their cross-cultural characteristics.
    The above mentioned problem is among cultural issues of contemporary linguocultural science aiming at studying of language unit of cultural semantics formed in the result of language and culture interaction in which language personality creates the essence of national culture. Being in the centre of the linguistic anthropocentric paradigm the national language personality links the avenues oriented on cultural aspect in the language with ones developing language factor in culture.
    The article focuses on the ethnospecific language units – language realia – which make the foundation of national cultural paradigm. The linguistic and cultural value of the language realia presupposes the following peculiarities – specific national colouring and absence of equivalents in the native language.
    There is a diversity of the language manifestation of the realia through simple, compound words, phrasal units up to sentence and discourse realia. All the language units supplement the English language system with national element identifying it in the cultural aspect. The semantic status of the language realia is defined by the linguocultural concept, unique to any language.
    The semantic structure of realia includes a particular sememe – special cultural component part – the marker of the national identity of the given lexic units, defining the difference from the other words in the language system.
    Being nessesary for every realia structure, the cultural marker may serve a criterion in semantic-structural classification of the given language units according to which they are subdivided into four types.
    Key words: anthropocentric paradigm, national mentality, realia, cultural component, linguocultural concept, universal concept, autochthons, cross-cultural problems.

  5. Basyuk L. Speaker’s Strategies and Tactics as Addresser and Addressee in the Discourse of the Debate in the UK Parliament and the US Congress - C. 13-18.
    The article is devoted to one of the participants in the English-speaking parliamentary debates – Speaker. Attempts have been made to identify the role and place of the Speaker in the discourse of debate in the UK Parliament and the US Congress. The definition of the concepts of strategy and tactics is considered. It is determined that the tactic is a tool for the implementation of the Speaker’s selected communication strategies. It attempts to determine the communicative strategies and tactics of the Speaker in the role of the sender and the recipient during the parliamentary debates.
    The tactical arsenal of the Speaker in the UK Parliament and the US Congress is compared. Thus, the author concluded that the chosen strategy of the coordination of verbal communication is common to the Speaker of the Parliament of Great Britain, and to the Speaker of the US Congress. Tactics of strategy of the coordination realization are common – the tactic of presentation, regulation and response. Speaker of the US Congress is inherent another strategy of verbal behavior – a cooperative strategy. To implement cooperative strategy, Speaker of the US Congress uses tactics of repeating the question and of information request. Selecting additional strategy allows the Speaker of US Congress to influence increasingly the process of communication and addressee during the parliamentary debates.
    Key words: communication strategy, communication tactic, parliamentary discourse, sender, addressee.

  6. Belyakov O. Stream-of-Consciousness of W. Faulkner’s "The Sound and the Fury”: Modifying the Narrative Convention. - C. 23-29.
    This article deals with the structural-semantic peculiarities of the stream-of-consciousness passages (referred to as introspective segments) with an emphasis on similarities and dissimilarities between the three sections of W. Faulkner’s “The Sound and the Fury” and earlier chapters of J. Joyce’s “Ulysses”.
    An introspective segment (IS) is defined as a product of the “secondary semiotic system” (Yu. Lotman), an aesthetic model of verbal and non-verbal phenomena (images, sensations, intense emotions) constructed by the author in accordance with his/her pragmatic intention. IS find one of their richest uses in randomnizing what the reader should eventually rationalize (R.M. Adams). Aberrant syntax, fuzzy contents, alternating cohesion between the syntagmatic elements, obscure and an ambiguous reference system – all these characteristics hamper the process of reading and interpreting the IS. However, an IS is not a game without rules but rather a game the rules of which should be established.
    Superficially, IS in Faulkner’s and Joyce’s novels are analogous: both are minimally narrated, minimally mediated and consist of a certain amount of objective, third-person narration counterbalanced by a massive body of more or less unstructured interior monologue.
    One of my ongoing ideas has been to ascertain how the IS are made and what narrative resources of Joyce’s “Ulysses” Faulkner assimilated into his fiction.
    It is obvious that Joyce and Faulkner resort to the same pattern that allows them to represent the characters’ introspection. It has a number of definite structural and semantic characteristics which can be divided into external (found outside the boundaries of the IS) and internal (pertaining to the IS per se).
    An example of external characteristics is the contamination of the authorial narration and the character’s introspection. Faulkner demonstrates an apparent desire to inject consciousness into the world and the world into consciousness. The speech of the mind and the speech of the world intermingle in Faulkner’s “The Sound and the Fury” (S. Ross). It is reasonable, therefore, to differentiate the ambivalent (diffused, conditional) and unambivalent (flagrant, unconditional) IS.
    Internal characteristics include violating of traditional principles of textual cohesiveness and discreteness; imperceptible shifts in special and temporal coordinates, ambiguous “reference frame” of personal, demonstrative and possessive pronouns, deformation of the sentence structure.
    One of the major inferences of the research is that Faulkner’s masterpiece is not in any case a Joycean imitation. It is an extension of Joyce’s mode of narration. Faulkner transfigured the narrative convention of the summa of modernism (Joyce’s “Ulysses”) and inscribed it in a much broader (as compared with Joyce) context of history, social reality and the place designated as Yoknapatawpha. IS in Faulkner’s “The Sound and the Fury” are not only direct objective correlatives to the states of each of the character’s minds (N. Polk), not only verbal media to represent a non-verbal reality but also powerful tools to reveal the theme, to advance the plot, to contribute to the content-conceptual information and characterize the introspective monologuists. The IS in the first three parts of “The Sound and the Fury” manifest three types of consciousness: the undeveloped, naïve, immediate, preverbal consciousness of Benjy; the romantic-metaphysical consciousness of Quentin, burdened with ontological and ethical categories (being, honor, sin); Jason’s pragmatic, vulgar purposeful consciousness aimed at achieving his own ends.
    Summing up, in modifying Joyce’s narrative convention Faulkner, on the one hand, is equal to his Irish predecessor, but on the other, is second to none.
    Key words: stream-of-consciousness, introspective segments, subjective reality, narrative convention, structural and semantic characteristics, non-verbal phenomena.

  7. Bielykh O. Consolidation of Means of German sentences′ Formation of Late Middle Ages. - C. 18-23.
    This article deals with the investigation of the structure of the Middle High German sentences. The language exists in the society and is historically changeable. Only its written form can make the process of its modification a bit slower. The sentences of Middle High German are divided into declarative, imperative and interrogative. While translating one should pay attention to the structure of the sentence, as the principal clause is independent and the subordinate clause is its part or they may depend on each other in the hierarchic gradation. Subject clauses, predicative, object, adverbial and attributive clauses are distinguished in the Middle High German. Conditional and concessive clauses without any parenthetical conjunction are used too. Indirect interrogative sentences are introduced by interrogative pronoun or interrogative word. The relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns or relative adverb.
    The structures of verbs, which contribute the closed-in constructions of the sentence (periphrasis and analytical forms of verb) were developed in the Middle High German. Appearance and consolidation of these structures is explained mostly contextual-semantic, which answers the tendency of development from the synthetic (finite) to the analytic structure of the language, like in other Germanic.
    Key words: Middle High German vocabulary, structure of the sentence, types of German subordinate clauses of Middle Ages, subordinating conjunction, diachronic cut.

  8. Biskub I. Diagnostical Categorization in Software Discourse. - C. 29-33.
    The article presents a new approach to treating the concept of cognitive categorization in modern linguistics. One of the key questions cognitive linguistics has to provide answers to is the question how people cognate knowledge in the process of learning. Any learning procedure is based on acquiring knowledge provided in the verbal form. The optimal way of presenting the verbal knowledge is to provide definitions of the main concepts related to the domain. The present article offers an approach according to which it is possible to discriminate between characteristic and unique feature of the concepts while giving their verbal definitions. The research was carried out on the material of the Engilsh software discourse, i.e., the set of language means used in defining functions in graphical user’s interfaces (GUIs). One of the ways to experimentally address this question consists in determining whether some entity does or does not belong to a specified category on the basis of a description of the entity. This is what users normally do when they read the texts presented in GUI dialogue boxes.
    Key words and phrases: categorization, concept, knowledge, definition, cognition.

  9. Bulatetska L. From Communicative Strategies to Pragmatic Motivations. - C. 33-38.
    Involvement as a communicative entity is determined by the degree of mutual interaction of interlocutors directed towards effective functioning of the common topic. There are no grounds to speak about monosemantic interpretation of the topic in the linguistic literature. D. Tannen defines it in the terms of the style of speaking: if the interlocutors do not leave much time for the interreply pause and one of them starts to speak when his partner is still speaking, then communication with practically absent interreply pauses D. Tannen qualifies as high involvement. In such cases the communicative partners do not care much about their “positive face”. But as soon as the tempo of speech is slowing down and interreply pauses become more distinct the partners do not illustrate great interest to the topic, they lower their emotional excitement or even indefinite attitude to it.
    The general vision of involvement is widening and depends on what goes to the focus of orientation. Existing approaches are reduced to the following three:
    a) involvement of the speaker and listener to the information of the topic (as individual participants);
    b) involvement of the community members (as mass participants);
    c) involvement of the topic on the parameter of its informativity and vitality of the problem.
    So involvement is a multimeasured entity, a skilful manipulation by verbal and non-verbal means of it stimulates the process of communication. It absolutely agrees with the perspective of description of the topic discussed, it regulates the communicative distance between interlocutors: the more distanced they are from one another (because of the divergence in evaluation of the topic) the more complicated is identification of their common focus of orientation.
    Focus of orientation (vantage point) (the term of A. Glaz) is investigated as a dynamic component which is able to regulate the distance that can become longer or shorter and thus to approximate the position of communicative partners. If the topic is in the dominant vantage point it represents the objectivized point of view, but if the attention of interlocutors covers only partially the discussed topic then their points of view become considerably subjectivized: communicative distance becomes longer and involvement to communication doesn’t bring to the recessive vantage. Effective manipulation by verbal/non-verbal means is a permanent change of the viewpoint on a particular notion. The corresponding strategies become effective if they produce the same focus of orientation in the opposing sides. If it happens then the focus of orientation comes close to the focus of empathy or to the coincidence of both. In the absolute agreement of both we receive absolute involvement. As it was mentioned involvement is fixed on the scale of graduality so it is modified not due to the binary opposition because of its continuity and non-discreteness. Mutually dependent configuration “involvement (1) – communicative distance (2) – emotivity (3)” has the same common ground – topic. Due to their maximal agreement (1–3) topic receives the referential prominence and, as a consequence, the desired communicative effect is achieved.
    The change of the focus of orientation means the change in the priorities reflected in the structure of the topical field. Means of such reorientation directed on the new object as on a new object of involvement are considerably verified.
    Key words: involvement, intention, focus of orientation, vantage point, empathy, sympathy, (self)withdrawal, antipathy, prediction, anticipation, dynamic equilibrium.

  10. Charikova I. Influence of the Pragmatic Type of the Utterance and of the Social Status on the Actualization of the Intonation Model of the English Gratitude Expressions. - C. 148.
    The article deals with the problem of variation of the speech intonation organization. The author focuses on the study of prosodic subsystems’ structural and functional features that cause variation of English gratitude intonation model. The sociocultural contexts that stipulate intonational variation of gratitudes in speech communication were specified and defined as factors influencing actualization of the intonation model of the English gratitude utterances. The results of the acoustic analysis presented in the article confirm the results of the auditory analysis, substantiate and experimentally ascertain invariant and variant features constituting the prosody of gratitude as a unit of intonation level. Localization and level of the tone maximum (for the differentiation of the pragmatic aim and social status of the gratitude utterance); tone range of the intonation group, level of its beginning and finishing (for the differentiation of the social status of the speaker and emotional colouring of the utterance) and localization of the intensity maximum on the mostly functionally relevant segments of the intonation group (for the differentiation of the social status of the speaker) are determined by the author as the variant features of the prosodic organization of the English gratitude intonation model that serve to distinguish their functional and semantic types in formal and informal communicative situations.
    Key words: acoustic analysis, pragmatic type, social status, terminal rhythmic group, tone range of the intonation group, localization of the intensity maximum.

  11. Danylyuk N. Possibilities of Using Linguistic Country Studies Dictionaries for the Purposes of a Foreign Language Acquisition- C. 68-74.
    The article pays attention to the importance of learning foreign languages together with material and spiritual cultures of peoples. Peculiar features of the linguistic country studies dictionaries that contain common and proper names that have national cultural semantic features have been revealed, relevant reference resources have been pointed out and the review of the most important published materials have been done. There have been thoroughly described the Ukrainian lexicographic works, complied by the professors of the Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National university (“Ukraine in Words”, “Ukraine from А tо Я: a Language and Country Studies Mini-Dictionary”) and Ivan Franko Lviv National University (“Linguistic Country Studies Dictionary of the Proper Names of the Ukrainian Language”).
    There has been pointed out the main criterion for choosing the relevant units – the reflection of the national cultural information by language means. The structure of a dictionary entry has been presented as the one that contains the information about grammatical forms, all types of meanings, combinability, set expressions, phraseological units etc. The attention has been drawn to the possibilities of the effective usage the linguistic country studies works by the students of higher educational institutions who learn English, German, French, and Ukrainian as foreign languages at the lessons of linguistic country studies, lexicology, translation, linguistic text analysis etc.
    Кey words and phrases: foreign language, culture of a nation, names with national cultural semantic feature, linguistic country studies dictionary.

  12. Halapchuk-Tarnavska O. Age Differentiation of Discourse Strategies and Tactics in English Family Discourse. - C. 50-55.
    The article deals with the study of speech behavior of different age group representatives and with the analysis of discourse strategies and tactics in English familial discourse. Age is an important factor for social interaction and social organization. It is also linked to the role structure in the family and in social groups, with the assignment of authority and with the attribution of different levels of communication.
    After an exploration of young and elderly speech peculiarities, age neutral, age preferred and age exclusive peculiarities are proposed. A comprehensive overview of the strategies and tactics in symmetrical and asymmetrical family relations is given. In its framework discourse strategies are classified as firm, soft and flexible and tactics as age preferred and age neutral. Discourse strategies and tactics determined by the age of the interlocutors are investigated in the 14 most characteristic speech situations.
    The choice of the strategy by children and adults is defined by speech situations which are classified as dominating and neutral. In family discourse adults are utilizing wider set of tactics due to the fact they possess higher social status.
    Key words: age differentiation, family discourse, symmetrical/asymmetrical relations, speech strategies and tactics, speech situation.

  13. Halytska O. Using of Audio Podcast for German Language Teaching and Learning. - C. 55-59.
    The article deals with the study of speech behavior of different age group representatives and with the analysis of discourse strategies and tactics in English familial discourse. Age is an important factor for social interaction and social organization. It is also linked to the role structure in the family and in social groups, with the assignment of authority and with the attribution of different levels of communication.
    After an exploration of young and elderly speech peculiarities, age neutral, age preferred and age exclusive peculiarities are proposed. A comprehensive overview of the strategies and tactics in symmetrical and asymmetrical family relations is given. In its framework discourse strategies are classified as firm, soft and flexible and tactics as age preferred and age neutral. Discourse strategies and tactics determined by the age of the interlocutors are investigated in the 14 most characteristic speech situations.
    The choice of the strategy by children and adults is defined by speech situations which are classified as dominating and neutral. In family discourse adults are utilizing wider set of tactics due to the fact they possess higher social status.
    Key words: age differentiation, family discourse, symmetrical/asymmetrical relations, speech strategies and tactics, speech situation.

  14. Honcharuk S., Yefremova N. Cognitive Features of English Verbal Synonyms. - C. 59-63.
    The prime aim of this article is revealing cognitive prerequisites of verbal synonymic series formation. Structural characteristics of frame-cognitive models that are the basis for uniting verbs in synonymic series are investigated. The peculiarities of modelling of the propositional dictum of frame-cognitive verbal pattern, reproducing a specific activity with a complete reconstruction of various aspects of this activity, are revealed.
    The structures of interframe networks of verbal synonymic series denoting action, state and process are modelled. It is found out that the type of interframe network which is the basis of verbal synonymic series depends on the semantic class of verbal synonyms. It is proved that verbs denoting actions and processes are united into synonymic series on the basis of interframe network, which shows a high ability to accumulate and fill up appropriate slots. The interframe network of verbal synonymic series denoting state is characterized by a limited number of slots, which, consequently, indicates certain fixity of its structure.
    Cognitive mechanisms of semantic proximity and semantic opposition formation in verbal synonymic series are revealed. It is proved that the opposition of verbs in synonymic series depends on the quality of filled slots of the propositional dictums of their frame-cognitive patterns.
    Key words: verbal synonyms, synonymic series, frame, proposition, dictum, slot.

  15. Hrybok О., Zastrovska S. Stereotypical Topics of English Everyday Discourse. - C. 63-68.
    This article is devoted to the research of stereotypes in modern German everyday discourse. The attention is paid to their cultural peculiarities. The article deals with the definition of the term “stereotypical topics”, the criteria for the actualization of such topics in the communicative process, systematization of the “stereotyped topics” of German everyday discourse, examination of the specificfeatures of self-perception of Germans and their stereotypical attitudes toowards topical problems in everyday discourse as an example of a more detailed analysis ofsome mostly used topics. The analysis of linguistic resources in the deployment of stereotypical discourses was carried out. It defines the presence of thematic stereotypical statements which include the certain speech material. Among the available linguistic devices that are used to deploy the stereotypical topics, it focuses on the lexical units of the “thematic stereotypes” which certify the national specific of the worldview of German lingual community.
    Key words: actualization, everyday discourse, objectification, stereotyped topic, themed stereotype.
    Key words: actualization, everyday discourse, objectification, stereotyped topic, themed stereotype.

  16. Kalynovska I. Lexico-Semantic Group STABILITY of Modern English Nouns. - C. 74-79.
    Stability is known to be one of the features of linguistic norm, along with a tendency to differentiate variant realizations functionally and stylistically. Standards provide language with such features as order and general obligation At the syntactic level linguistic norm is sufficiently stable. Its evolutional development is conditioned by the requirements of social communication, with significant changes that occur not in the set of syntactic means but in the way and frequency of their usage. The study of linguistic unit stability is vital and perspective, because language as a socially and historically conditioned phenomenon is characterized by dynamic and stability principles.
    Our article focuses on the main aspects of lexico-semantic group stability of high frequency Modern English nouns, being the heads of noun phrases used in English literary texts. The analysis is made with the help of statistic formulas of variation coefficient (V) and standard deviation (σ). The investigation reflects a widespread in language and speech preference law, according to which a small amount of units is used very often and carries a maximum functional capacity. The lower the variation coefficient of a language unit, the higher the language unit stability. According to that approach linguistic norm represents constructions that are actually used in language.
    Key words: language norm, stability, lexico-semantic group, noun phrase.

  17. Khaichevska T. Manifestations of Punctuation Marks Expressivity in a Fiction Text (on the Material of Modern French Literature) - C. 138-144.
    The literary process in France of the previous century is represented by a variety of innovative experiments with the content and form of works of fiction, which will eventually be displayed in different spheres of human activity, such as print media, advertising, the Internet, and in particular, in modern literature. Punctuation has become one of the author’s experiments. Punctuation variation is increasingly being used as an additional author’s tool to influence reader’s perception of the work.
    Taken these facts into consideration, the article studied the cases of a non-normative punctuation design of a fiction text which prove its effectiveness in transferring author’s conception; an attempt to find out and systematize the most popular cases of punctuation marks expressive use is also made. The results of the investigation showed that the manifestations of punctuation marks expressiveness contribute to the creation of original visual image of the text, which results in rethinking of the written. Expressiveness of such signs as ellipsis, dash, question and exclamation marks, as well as their combinations, represents the intonational peculiarities of a character’s speech in writing. It has been revealed that the most popular experiments are those with ellipsis, whose considerable expressive potential is explained by the versatility of its use in a fiction text.
    Key words: punctuation marks, punctuation design of the text, punctuation variation, expressiveness of punctuation marks, graphic means of expressiveness.

  18. Khaidemeier V. On the Question of Genre Typology: the Functional Approach. - C. 79-83.
    The article is devoted to the typology of genres problem. Based on the fundamental works of leading scientists in text theory and stylistics, a brief overview of possible classification of texts into certain types or classes is suggested. In the theory of genre studies various stages are traced which are associated with the development of text linguistics as a science. One of them is a functional approach which is based on the theory of functional styles. Significant contribution to the development of the theory of genres was made by an expert in literature M. Bakhtin.
    The scientist assumes that each functional sphere (daily, scientific, official, journalistic, business) is characterized by its unique specific conditions which give rise to specific types of texts. Leading linguists in the field of Germanistics, such as O. Morokhovskyy, E. Rizel, M. Brandes etc. rely upon this theory. O. Morokhovskyy singles out types of texts within functional styles, for example, formal speech style is characterized by legislative, legal, commercial, diplomatic, military classes of texts, each of which is divided into certain genres (orders, instructions and messages – are genres of texts on military themes).
    Careful classification of genres based on their functional styles was developed by a Germanist M. Brandes, this classification is presented in the monograph “German Language Stylistics (1990)”. The analysis found that when classifying genres based on the functional criterion, a number of difficulties and uncertainties arise. A considerable part of genres is intertwined in different functional styles, for example such as genre as “article” can be used in press or in science. This also applies to many other types of texts. For this reason it is necessary to seek out other criteria which would allow conducting a more objective classification of texts.
    Key words: genre, structure, typology, text type, functional style.

  19. Kozak S. Frames that Describe People in Fictional Discourse. - C. 83-87.
    The research paper is dedicated to the investigation of the peculiarities of the functioning and verbal filling of the frame structures that describe people in German fictional discourse represented by the novel “Jephthah and his daughter” [“Jefta und seine Tochter”] by Lion Feuchtwanger.
    The research of a literary discourse implies the interpretation of its content with the regard of its micro- and macrostructure, i.e. its inner and outer relations, linguistic and extra-linguistic contexts. At the same time it’s necessary to investigate questions which are directly connected with functional pragmatics of a discourse, namely the questions of the frame representation. The term frame got into the branch of linguistics from cognitive psychology and became a distinctive contact link between language structures and their correlates in reality. Being actualized and mobilized by the authors, frames form a discourse, define its quality and pragmatics.
    The analysis of the lexical units that describe people’s appearance in the novel “Jephthah and his daughter” by L. Feuchtwanger made it possible to research cognitive-pragmatic features of the frame structures which represent the frame ‘Appearance’ in the fictional discourse. The analyzed extracts of the literary work represent interesting examples of the frame structures, which describe human appearance. The terminal elements, which represent people’s features, play an important part in the verbal presentation of the frame ‘Man’, because they help the author to express the nature of the main characters of the novel as well as to reveal their inner world.
    Key words: discourse, frame, frame structure, terminal, terminal element, appearance.

  20. Kyrychuk L. Self Presentation as Subjective Stancetaking in Celebrity Interview Show. - C. 87-92.
    The paper addresses the questions of self-presentation from the perspective of the stancetaking theory, that is our study expands the existing models of self-presentation by introducing the notion of stance into them. It explores the methods of impression management in the celebrity interview show realized through selected verbal acts which are viewed as stances.
    The celebrity interview show is a particular genre of the celebrity interview. Its structural singularity lies in the specific interactional model that imposes a set of requirements and constrains on the celebrity’s self-presentational behavior.
    The impression management motivation that governs celebrity’s verbal performance in the interview show is the one of image reinforcement/ modification. It determines the peculiar self-presentational manner in which celebrities construct their self-identities trying to match audience’s expectations. Admittedly, while making a choice of a self-presentational verbal act from a wide range of possibilities a celebrity is taking a stance.
    As far as the celebrity interview show is concerned, stance is viewed as a particular act of self-presentation performed with respect to the extalinguistic parameters of the show, namely, its situational and social conventions, the status of the interviewee, the audience, the public information (the image entrenchment), the role constrains, etc.
    We treat the stances a celebrity takes in the interview show as subjective, since the model of this kind of interview does not provide for a dialogue, or interruptions, or follow-up questions, etc. Celebrity’s responses are tailored not only for the immediate listeners in the interview hall but, mostly, for a broader audience on an inter/national scale. Under the conditions of the asymmetric ‘spotlight’ communication celebrity’s speech shapes up as impression-oriented rather than interlocutor-oriented, thus, losing its intersubjective quality.
    The types of stance patterns a celebrity repeatedly uses demonstrate the manner of accomplishing his/her self-presentational strategies and tactics. The dominating tactic of self-enhancement is realized through the self-acclaiming stances in which celebrities accentuate their positive qualities or describe their actions that are likely to be perceived as socially appropriate. However, being aware of the risk of overusing self-acclaims they level off their self-presentational behavior by taking self-disclaiming stances which involve confessing celebrity’s flaws, foibles and mistakes. The self-disclaiming stances are meant to portray the presenter as honest and unbiased. The balance of the self-acclaiming and self-disclaiming stances enables a celebrity to be percieved as a self-developing and self-improving social personality.
    So far as celebrity’s stances are linked to acts of performance which are aimed at impression management, by making their stance choices in the interview show celebrities accomplish their self-presentational goals. In this sense celebrities’ subjective stances are tactical acts of their self-presentation.
    Key words: self-presentation, public image, stancetaking, verbal behavior, speech identity.

  21. Lysetska N. Verbal Expression of Anti-War Literary Discourse. - C. 92-96.
    This article studies the literary discourse. Based on the interpretative analysis of the poem by G. Heym “Der Krieg” and the play by M. Ravenhill “Shoot/ get treasure/ repeat”//“Freedom and Democracy I hate you” one of the most topical problems of modern linguistics – the expression of anti-war subject by German language means – is considered. In both analyzed works, which are 100 years separated from each other in the time space, one can trace parallels in the choice of the topic of danger of war and its threat to civilization, which, however, contain some differences in its formal semantic presentation. In his poem “Der Krieg” Georg Heim portrays the war as a black monster. The evolution of human insight is depicted as a keynote – from delight in anticipation of changes to total destruction of the society, spiritual and physical destruction. The poem focuses on the contrast between the light and the dark, which runs through the entire text and is conveyed by red and black colors, which are complemented by a palette of other colors. The colors metaphor helps to implicitly convey the basic meanings and to clearly demonstrate the size of the devastation. The colors are associated with death, destruction, sorrow and are used in antonymic opposition. M. Reyvenhill tried to contrast the good world with the aggressive one, hoping to rehabilitate the latter. Devices of adding such as Wir alle – alle von uns; Seht uns an. Seht uns einmal an. Seht uns alle genau an are not only explicitly expressed anaphora, epiphora, amplification, circular repetition, climax etc. First of all this is division into “us”, “good people” and “others”, whom we do not understand and do not want to understand. Such veiled, metaphorical meaning is achieved by means of the above mentioned stylistic devices which are kind of “devices in devices”, that is metaphor in anaphora, epiphora, climax etc. In the future, we consider it reasonable to investigate the verbalization and objectification of anti-war discourse of contemporary German press.
    Key words: discourse, metaphor, climax, distant / contact repetition, aposiopesis.

  22. Makaruk L. The Distinct Features of Modern English Advertisements. - C. 96-102.
    This article deals with an investigation which has been conducted in connection with modern English advertisements, focusing particular attention on their multimodal character. A description is given of the role and the functions of the elements which are an integral part of these advertisements. The interdependence and interconnection of verbal and paralingual components in English advertisements have been analyzed. Verbal and non-verbal elements have been described, and factors which influence the formation of modern advertisements have been identified. A description is given of the components which modern advertisements comprise, and their peculiarities have been analyzed. An investigation has been made into the spectrum of semiotic resources which are utilized within advertisements. It has been indicated that the verbal and non-verbal elements of advertisements are their structural elements. The key components which belong to the advertisements have been enumerated. Great attention is paid to the visual elements. Their importance and the necessity of usage have been analyzed. The constituent parts of advertisements have been identified (caption, sub-caption, beginning, the text of the advertisement offer, conclusion or prescriber, echo-phrase, slogan, address, license number).
    Key words: advertisement, verbal and non-verbal means, components, multimodality, semiotic resources.

  23. Melnyk O. To The Problem of the Communicative Behaviour of an Egotist - C. 102-106.
    The process of identifying and describing different types of communicative personalities is regarded as an issue of very significant topicality in modern linguistics. This article provides a review of the basic definitions of communicative personality, and describes the parameters and features that are characteristic of an egotist as a special type of communicative personality. The article deals with the notion of communicative personality that presupposes the content of the message, the element or elements which are at the centre of it, and the unity of the communicative acts which are focused on other communicative personalities. There is a difference between an individual and a communicative personality. Any person may have different types of masks, roles and personalities. Attention is focused on the main types of communicative personalities, such as dominant, mobile, rigid and introspective. The communicative-speech style was characterized as the distinctive pattern of speech behaviour that realizes one of the communicative strategies which are appropriate for individuals, for various social groups and for national and cultural communities. American and British communicative behaviour patterns have been analyzed, in view of the fact that all traits of national character and mentality have an influence on communication. The parameters of communicative behaviour relevant to the description of the communicative behaviour of egotists have been indicated; they include aspects such as communicative self-presentation, communicative pressure, the communicative need for information, communicative self-control, the nonverbal organization of communication and communicative style.
    Key words: communicative personality, communicative behaviour, an interlocutor, English communicative behaviour, American communicative behaviour.

  24. Nizhegorodtseva-Kirichenko L. Verbalized Equivalent of the Concept COGNIZANCE. - C. 106-113.
    “Cognition” is a word that dates back to the 15th century when it meant “thinking and awareness”. Attention to the cognitive process came about more than twenty-three centuries ago, beginning with Aristotle and his interest in the inner workings of the mind and how they affect the human experience. Aristotle focused on cognitive areas pertaining to memory, perception, and mental imagery.
    The purpose of this article is to examine the concept of COGNIZANCE/COGNITION through the lens of cognitive linguistics, the object study of which is the language as a tool of gaining knowledge or cognition. Thus, the language is presented as a means of access to mental processes.
    The concept COGNIZANCE forms the top of the hierarchy of the lexical field of intellectual activity, components of which are THOUGHT and MEMORY.
    Full linguistic unpacking of the concept COGNIZANCE, based on synonymous and thesaurus relations, makes it possible to arrange appropriately a verbalized concept. This thesaurus fragment is built as a frame model. Further analysis of the linguistic definitions allows us to determine the appropriate classification of synonyms, which are included into the verbalized concept of COZNIZANCE.
    Recreating the conceptual structure of the concept took place on the basis of linguistic empiricism. Thus, the study was carried out in the direction “language – thought”. On the other hand, the reconstructed conceptual model allowed to offer an explanation of a number of linguistic phenomena, to understand patterns of organization of a certain area of the lexical system. In this case, the study was carried out in the direction “thought – language .”
    Key words: verbalized concept, intellectual activity, cognition, cognitive linguistics, frame structures.

  25. Novak H. Novel of a Turn as a Literature Genre. - C. 113-117.
    The article deals with description of the historical background of the appearance of a new type of a novel in the German literature, namely the novel of a turn. This kind of a novel came into being as a reaction, first of all, of the Eastern German writers to the events that happened in 1989 when the two parts of Germany were reunited. A special attention has been paid to the peculiar features of the formation of the novel of a turn which reflects deep psychological problems of the people of Eastern Germany that appeared on the basis of huge political, economic and social changes. Thematic peculiarities and ironically satiric manner of a narration that were often applied by the writers enabled scholars to distinguish and with the help of examples characterize the following main types of the novel of a turn: an encyclopedic novel, a romance novel, a gambling novel, a novel of horror and a feministic novel. It has been pointed out in the article that a manner of narration, evaluation and reflection of the events of the year 1989 depend upon the origin of an author (GFR or GDR) and upon the generation (younger or older) he belongs to.
    Key words and phrases: a novel of a turn, an encyclopedic novel, a romance novel, a gambling novel, a novel of horror, a feministic novel.

  26. Pavliuk A., Rohach O. Values and Beliefs in the System of a National Culture. - C. 117-122.
    The article deals with the definition of the term “culture” and its main constituent parts, with the description of the notion of an ethnic culture and its segments such as material and spiritual values, cultural traditions, ethnic markers, ethnically and socially established stereotypes and norms of behaviour, with the definition of the main functions of an ethnic culture − formation of an ethnic community, its adaptation, preservation and protection. It has been pointed out that the main forms of an ethnic culture manifestation are literature, folklore, music, dances, painting, rules of etiquette and norms of behaviour, secular and religious ceremonies and rituals, traditional celebrations, gastronomic preferences, styles of dressing, body language, facial expressions, and gestures. A special attention has been paid to the differentiation of universal, ethnic/cultural and individual/personal values, to the analysis of the system of national values of the Americans within which the culture meaningful notions are a fate and its control, action, equality of possibilities, realism, and tolerance, adjustment, formalism, flexibility, readiness to accept change and take risks, positive attitude towards life, optimism, independence, self-reliance.
    Key words and phrases: culture, сoncept, ethnic culture, national values, stereotypes, norms of bevaviour.

  27. Peredon N. Implicitness as a Component of Communication in the Conflict De-escalation Process. - C. 122-127.
    It is a generally-understood fact that the vast majority of utterances contain both explicit and implicit information. Because of the fact that the latter is not directly verbalized, additional strategies are required for encoding and decoding it. The focus of this article is to explore the nature of implicitness as a linguistic category. An attempt has been made to consider the basic approaches which exist for dealing with this problem. The author has drawn a distinction between the notions of proposition, implicitness, implication and implicature, considering them to be related, but not identical. The author has described the reasons for which the interlocutors feel impelled to convey their messages implicitly, and has identified the key factors for successfully encoding and decoding information in the process of communication. Implicitness has been described as being linked with latently expressed information, which is then decoded by the interlocutor in accordance with the explicit meaning of a message, and with the circumstances and conditions under which the communication occurs. The author has analyzed specific aspects involved in the use of implicit messages within the process of conflict de-escalation. It has been determined that utterances with implicit meanings are often used in the type of situation which is the object of our analysis, and may be utilized either by the party who is seeking to be the initiator of restored harmonious relations, or by the interlocutor who is the object of the initiative for reconciliation. A point worth noting is that implicitly expressed information can either supplement the explicit messages, or else it can completely replace them. Since it is possible to decode implicit messages in a variety of different ways, they may contribute to the resolution of the conflict, or else, on the contrary, they may actually contribute to its escalation.
    Key words: implicitness, proposition, implication, implicature, decoding, сonflict de-escalation.

  28. Rys L. Particular Cases of Nominal Composition in the Modern German Language - C. 127-133.
    The article deals with such little-investigated word-formation models of nominal composition in the modern German, as multicomponent noun compounds and noun compounds which contain letters in the structure. In the research the word-formation characteristics of noun compounds of the German language and their basic types are described; the structure and the relations between the immediate constituents of multicomponent noun compounds are observed. The study allows revealing such types of syntactic constructions as noun phrases, verb phrases, prepositional combinations with nouns and sentences which can function as the first immediate constituent of phrasal compounds in German. The possible ways of functioning of letters and formulas in the structure of noun compounds are defined. The noun compounds with letters show their dependence on certain branches of knowledge, except when using the letters in the iconic function.
    Analysed types of noun compounds serve more detailed classification of word-formation models of nominal composition in the modern German. Investigated examples evidence that the described compounding models are productive word-formation processes in the modern German language. The study of productive ways to create new words gives an opportunity to own the morphological level of investigated constructions and better and deeper understand the semantics of compound words.
    Key words: noun compound, the first immediate constituent, the second immediate constituent, multicomponent compound, phrasal compound.

  29. Semenyuk T. Semantic Correlations between Text and Image in Advertisements. - C. 133-138.
    This article deals with multimodal texts in which means of different sign systems such as images and verbal texts are used. The connection between the text and image raises the question of the interconnection of verbal and visual signs and their semiotic correlations. The focus of this article is on the image – text relations in the digital advertisements where the two modes appear separately but they can integrate. The article also pays attention to the functions of verbal and non-verbal modes, their dominance in the advertisements. The main attention has been devoted to the typology of the correlations between the signs of different codes in advertising. The article presents an attempt to describe and to analyze how images and texts relate to each other. The emphasis is made on the main types of image-text relations and on the presentation of a system of their relations and specification of their realizations.
    Key words: text, image, text-image correlations, redundancy, addition, discrepancy.

  30. Tsisar A. Configurational Possibilities of the Concept BERUFSWAHL in the Modern German-language Advertising Discourse. - C. 144-148.
    The problem of the functioning of concepts in different types of discourse is an important one in the modern linguistic studies. The research into this problem let us get to know more about concepts and discourse. The concepts can correlate und build corresponding connections with each other. These connections are denoted as discursive configurations of concepts.
    The modern German-language advertising discourse is institutional, anthropocentric, informative, pragmatically keen and oriented to a mass addressee.
    On this basis we have undertaken the research into the configurational possibilities of the concept BERUFSWAHL (occupational choice). The addressee of advertising texts is the subject of the occupational choice.
    The research let to establish that in the given type of discourse, the concept BERUFSWAHL generates configurational connections with a number of concepts, which have a positive valuation component and represent in the first place the values of the modern West European German-speaking community: ERFOLG (success), KARRIERE (career) CHANCE, AUFSTIEG (ascent), SPITZE (top), GÜTE (goodness), INTERESSE (interest), GROSSARTIGKEIT (grandeur), ATTRAKTIVITÄT (attaktivity), ERFAHRUNG (experience), SICHERHEIT (confidence), KRAFT (power), NEUES (novelty), ABWECHSLUNG (variety), ZUKUNFT (future), WEG (way), BEWEGUNG (motion), TEMPO, GRUNDSTEIN (foundation stone), ERLEBNIS (event), WELT (world), ENTDECKUNG (discovery). Such discursive configurations of concepts ensure the success of rational as well as emotional advertising strategies.
    The perspective of subsequent researches concerns the addressee and the addresser of the advertisement trough the interaction of the concept BERUFSWAHL with other concepts in this type of discourse.
    Key words: advertising discourse, rational and emotional advertising strategies, concept, verbalization of concepts, profilisation of concepts, discursive configurations of concepts.

  31. Vasylenko O., Sheludchenko S, The Biological Terms of Popular-Science Children’s Style: Lexical, Structural and Semantic Parameters (A Study of the Articles from the Magazine “National Geographic Kids”). - C. 38-44.
    This work focuses on the analysis of lexical, structural and semantic properties of biological terms in popular-science children’s articles. The research has been grounded on the totality of terms’ classifications based on the logical, linguistic and scientific principles. Fifty-two articles from the popular-science magazine “National Geographic Kids” have been analyzed and 464 biological terms have been singled out.
    Taking into account the recipient’s psychological peculiarities the terms’ inclination for simple formal structure has been traced. This conformity is intended for easier children’s comprehension of multi-aspect informational space in the analyzed articles. Three derivative patterns for terms-words and six structural patterns for terminological word-combinations have been determined. The pattern comprising two components has been proved to be a dominant one for terminological word-combinations. Considering the logical category, the belonging of terms-words to parts of speech has been outlined.
    Applying the criterion “object of nomination” five taxons such as ZOOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, BOTANY, GENETICS and PALAEONTOLOGY have been registered. Due to the multi-aspect character of the taxon ZOOLOGY monostructural subtaxon ZOOGEOGRAPHY and polystructural subtaxon FAUNA have been segregated.
    Key words: a term, a derivative pattern, a term-word, a terminological word-combination, a taxon.

  32. Voloshynovych N., Trotsiuk A. Structural and Semantic Peculiarities of Phraseological Units Containing the Somatic Component "Hand”. - C. 44-50.
    The article deals with the substantivized,adverbial and verbal phraseological units of modern English with the somatic component “hand”. This study has demonstrated that the somatic component “hand” is characterized by high productivity, in the sense that it is the basis of generating a great number of substantivized and verbal phraseological units. With respect to adverbial PhUs, it has been shown that they are not numerous (about 30).
    The most common structural type of substantivized PhUs is the structure involving attributive word-combination, for adverbial PhUs – it is a combination of one structural and one notional word and a subordinate word combination that consists of two components; for verbal PhUs the structure of subordinate word combination is the most relevant.
    All the PhUs which were investigated fall into one of the following three varieties in terms of phraseological meaning: idiomatisms, idiophraseomatisms, phraseomatisms. A great majority of PhUs are based on metaphor or metonymy. All of them are anthropocentric in their character. Some of them can form synonymic groups and antonymic pairs.
    The PhUs which were analysed can denote both people and inanimate things or both. Substantivized PhUs may express different degrees of favourability in terms of their evaluative nature: positive, negative or neutral.
    Key words: phraseological units, somatic component, idiomatism, idiophraseomatism, phraseomatism.



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