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  3. Boichuk Valentyna. Pragmatic Features of Pessimistic Utterances.– P. 5–11.
    The article highlights pragmatic factors that determine the peculiarities of pessimistic communicative behavior. Structural features of a pessimistic speech act, fourlevel structure of which is traditionally represented by a locutionary act, illocutionary act, propositional act and a perlocutionary act, are revealed. A locutionary act is a performance of a pessimistic utterance, that is, a verbal expression of pessimistic dispositions, attributions and moods. It was proved that main illocutions of a pessimistic communicant are: informing the addressee of a pessimistic vision of the situation in which the interlocutors found themselves; informing the addressee of the addresser‟s pessimistic self-esteem; support of the pessimistic worldview of the addresser; receiving psychological support from the addressee;expression of an adresser‟s pessimistic mood, caused by both internal dispositions and external causes; imparting the emotional state of the addresser. Taking into account the information-code model of communication, a propositional component of a pessimistic speech act, which is separated from the subjective content by the indicator of judgment, is described in terms of thing and action frames. The perlocutional goals of a pessimistic communicant are revealed: to urge the addressee to change the world-view; to urge the addressee to change his/her behavior; to make an addressee share addresser‟s subjective opinion; to make an emotional impact on the addressee; to change the psychological state and mood of the addressee by generating doubt, uncertainty, hopelessness, distrust, disappointment and other psychological states and emotional reactions that actualize qualitative features of pessimism. It is found out that the possibility of explicit expression of the pragmatic component of meaning indicator in the surface structure of a pessimistic speech act is the basis for the interpretation of the nature of its illocutionary force. It is proved that in direct pessimistic speech acts the addresser is explicated by a personal pronoun of the first person I, and the illocutionary force reflects the propositional meaning of an utterance, which is expressed by the lexical units which identify pessimism. The pragmatic component of indirect pessimistic speech acts is implicated.
    Key words: pessimistic utterance, speech act, illocution, propositional act, perlocutional goal.
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    2. Botvinko-Botyuk, Olena. 2014. “Strukturno-semantychni ta komunikatyvno-prahmatychni osoblyvosti vyslovlen‟ prezyrstva (na materiali anhlomovnoho khudozhn‟oho dyskursu).” PhD diss., Luts‟k.
    3. ZHabotinskaya, Svetlana. 1992. “Kognitivnyye i nominativnyye aspekty chislitel‟nykh (na materiale sovremennogo angliyskogo yazyka).” Grand PhD diss., Moskva.
    4. Kyselyuk, Nataliya. 2008. “Verbal‟ni ta neverbal‟ni zasoby aktualizatsiyi emotsiynoho stanu radosti v khudozhn‟omu dyskursi (na materiali anhlomovnoyi prozy XX-XXI stolit‟).” PhD diss., Luts‟k.
    5. Kozyarevych, Liana. 2006. “Verbal‟ni y neverbal‟ni zasoby empatyzatsiyi dialohichnoho dyskursu (na materiali anhlomovnoyi prozy XX stolittya).” PhD diss., Kyyiv.
    6. Makarov, Mihail. 2003. Osnovy teorii diskursa. Moskva: Gnozis.
    7. Maksymenko, Yuliya. 2014. “Nominatyvne pole “Interes” u suchasnomu anhlomovnomu khudozhn‟omu dyskursi: semantychnyy ta prahmatychnyy aspekty.” PhD diss., Kyyiv.
    8. Odarchuk, Nataliya. 2009. Vidmova : semantychnyy ta prahmatychnyy aspekty. Luts‟k : RRV “Vezha” Volyn. nats. un-tu im. Lesi Ukrayinky.
    9. Pocheptsov, Georgi. 1981. “Predlozhenye.” In Teoretycheskaya hrammatyka sovremennoho anhlyyskoho yazyka, edited by Y. P Yvanova., V. V Burlakova and G. G. Pocheptsov, 161–281. Moskva.
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    12. Susov, Yvan. 2009. Lynhvystycheskaya prahmatyka. Vynnytsa : Nova Kn..
    13. Chernyak, Oksana. 2005. “Strukturno-semantychni ta komunikatyvno-prahmatychni osoblyvosti vyslovlen‟ osudu (na materiali anhlomovnoho khudozhn‟oho dyskursu).” PhD diss., Kyyiv.
    14. Barrett, J. S. 2014. Ascension. Lulu Press, Inc..
    15. Berry, Chris J. 2015. The Guardian of Nemisia. AuthorHouse. 16. Bukowski, Charles. 2002. Ham on Rye. HarperCollins.
    17. Fawkes, David. 2014. The Cloth Elephant. Memoirs Publishing.
    18. Flynn, Vince. 2010. The Third Option. Pocket Star.
    19. Gingell, W. R. 2017. Spindle. Pronoun.
    20. Jackson, Shirley. 2017. Just an Ordinary Day. Penguin UK.
    21. Martin, A. E. 1994. Common People. Wakefield Press.
    22. Peacock, Wilbur S. 2014. Uranian Justice. eStar Books.
    23. Plath, Sylvia. 2005. The Bell Jar. FABER&FABER.
    24. Richdale, Ross. 2017. Catalyst. XinXii.
    25. Schmoke, Jeff. 2009. Oblivion II. AuthorHouse. 2
    6. Smith, Laird. 2014. The Red Dress. AuthorHouse.
    27. Weber, David, and John Ringo. 2001. March to the Sea. Baen Books.
    28. Wyndham, Lewis. 2010. Tarr. Oxford: OUP.

  4. Bondar Tetiana, Sklianchuk Oksana. Verbalization of the Concept КАТАСТРОФА / CATASTROPHE in the Ukrainian and English Languages. – P. 11–15.
    The article deals with verbalizers of the concept CATASTROPHE / CATASTROPHE in the Ukrainian and English languages. Attention has been paid to the lexical meaning and inner form of words that represent the concept under consideration. It was revealed that the basic lexemes-verbalizers of the concept CATASTROPHE / CATASTROPHE are lexemes катастрофа and catastrophe.  The analysis of Ukrainian and English newspaper discourse and the results of free associative experiment conducted among the native speakers of the Ukrainian and English languages gives an opportunity to determine the nucleus and periphery of the nominative field of the concept CATASTROPHE / CATASTROPHE. The nuclear zone of the nominative field of the concept CATASTROPHE is formed by lexemes disaster, cataclysm and tragedy, the periphery includes such lexemes as devastation, destruction, damage, fear, death, war, hurricane, flood. The nuclear zone of the nominative field of the concept КАТАСТРОФА encompasses such elements as аварія, війна, геноцид, Чорнобильська катастрофа, смерть. The periphery includes the following components: трагедія, катаклізм, крах, біда, паніка, вибух, ураган, землетрус, цунамі, авіакатастрофа. The result of the free associative experiment shows that the predominant Ukrainian associations to the wordstimulus катастрофа are авіакатастрофа, аварія and Чорнобиль, whereas British people associate catastrophe with a natural disaster or an earthquake.
    Key words: concept, verbalizer, nominative field, nucleus, periphery, associative experiment.
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    8. British National Corpus. 2017. https://corpus.byu.edu/bnc/. Accessed October 3, 2017.
    9. Corpus of Contemporary American English. 2017. https:// corpus.byu.edu/coca/. Accessed October 5, 2017.
    10. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. 2005. Edinburgh : Longman. http://www.pearsonlongman. com/dictionaries/iphone_dictionaries. html. Accessed September 10, 2017.
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    12. Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary. 2010. Oxford : Oxford University Press. http://www. oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/. Accessed September 10, 2017. 13. Urdang, Laurence, LaRoche, N. Rodale, J. Irving, ed. 1986. The Synonym Finde. NY : Grand Central Publishing.

  5. Anna Veremyova. The Ideologeme of the Narratives of the “The Cycle of the Invisible” by E.-E. Schmitt on the Example of Narratives “Monsieur Ibrahim and the Flowers of the Koran”, “Oscar and the Lady in Pink”, “Noah’s Child”, “The Sumo Wrestler Who Could Not Gain Weight”. – Р. 16–22.
    The narratives of the “Cycle of the invisible” by E.-E. Schmitt have a religious background and are considered as philosophical narratives. Each narrative is devoted to a particular religion or several religions that are opposed. The writer stands on the limit of ethical experimentation, which cannot but affect the sphere of ideology and personal psychology. The texts of E.-E. Schmitt are written in a fairly simple language and are available to the reader of any educational level. In all the narratives of the “The Cycle of the Invisible” main characters are children and adolescents who are experiencing difficulties, overcoming adult problems. But these texts are not for children. It would be correct to perceive the narratives of E.-E. Schmitt as a fairy tale for adults, but as “the philosophy to grow”. In his narratives E.-E. Schmitt describes the idea of a universal humanism, religious tolerance, all-forgiveness, unity of opposites. Each of the stories of “The Cycle of the Invisible” is dedicated to one of the religions. Reading the narratives without the knowledge of the basic principles of religions may not be objective. This study identifies a desire to motivate some of the properties of the poetics of short stories by E.-E. Schmitt and even the wellgrounded analysis of the narratives by E.-E. Schmitt is a novelty in the area of the Ukrainian science. In the works of E.E. Schmitt there is a drama of the human soul, which is presented in randomly layered, polyvalent universe. The ideas of repeatability, circularity and relativity plays an important stylistic role. Opposite and mutually exclusive concepts are united, one can find extraordinary logic of understanding, a combination of tragic and comic, high and low. The eternal question of the relationship between fathers and children is risen, where the upbringing of the child, through mutual communication is presented in a positive way. In the narratives by E.-E. Schmitt clearly the dichotomy of “mentorstudent” is observed, where an adult, although mostly, but not always plays the role of the teacher. This article gives a general overview of the most used ideologemes of the narratives of the “The Cycle of the Invisible” by E.-E. Schmitt.
    Key words: ideologeme, ideologeme structure, stories, religion, Catholicism, Sufism, Zen Buddhism, Judaism.
    1. Alhimiya slova zhyvoho. Francuzskiy roman 1945−2000. 2005. Кyiv: Promin.
    2. Andreiev, L. G. 2000. “Hudozhestvenyi sintez i postmodernism”. Voprosy Literatury. Sankt-Peterburg.
    3. Butynova, M. S. 2007. Kak voznikla religiya. Moskva.
    4. Gorohov, S. A. , Hrystov, T. T. Religii narodov mira. Sankt Peterburg.
    5. Smushinska, I. V. 2001. Subiektyvna modalnist francuzkoyi prozy. Кyiv: Kyivskyi universytet.
    6. Skoropanova, І. 1999. Russkaya postmodernicheskaya literature. Мoskva.
    7. Schmitt, Eric-Emmanuel. 2004. L‟enfant de Noé. Albin Michel. 8. Schmitt, Eric-Emmanuel. 2009. Le sumo qui ne pouvait pas grossir. Albin Michel.
    9. Schmitt, Eric-Emmanuel. 2001. Monsieur Ibrahim et les fleurs du Coran. Albin Michel.
    10. Schmitt, Eric-Emmanuel. 2002. Oscar et la Dame en rose. Albin Michel.

  6. Tetiana Vorobiova, Liudmyla Smalko. Translator training: teaching creativity in translation creatively– P. 22–29.
    The article highlights the issues of teaching translation, translator training, theoretical and practical aspects of teaching translation/interpretation in the system of university education. The emphasis is laid on the creative and competence-based approaches to translator training and the principal competences to be developed. The authors suggest several possible ways to make the most of the positive aspects of the European experience in the system of training highly-qualified translators and solution of the challenges faced by the translator trainers concerning the problem of how to design the content of training process aimed at the development of special skills and creativity. When modeling development of a translator‟s competence and acquisition of the wide range of skills an emphasis should be placed on the following items: communicative competence in source and target languages, subject-matter competence and tools competence. In terms of the pre-service translator training the process requires intensive creative approach to teaching. The study has revealed that in the context of translator training the following creativity-boosting methods are quite effective: Mind Mapping, translation workshops, multiplicity in translation, creative controversy, the Frisco Method, Synectics, etc. The issue of multiplicity of translation as a tool of creativity development has been studied in direct connection with the analysis of creative mechanisms of translation activity. The key findings of the study prove that although teaching creativity in translation is an ambitious task it is easily attainable with the creative approach to training.
    Key words: translator training, creative and competence-based approaches, translator‟s creativity, translator‟s competences, creativity-boosting methods.
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    2. Hakova, E. V. 2012. Rol kreativnosti v protsesse formirovaniia professionalnoi kompetentnosti perevodchika. Vestnik RUDN. M.: Izd-vo RUDN. 1: (11−18).
    3. Kovtun, O. V. 2015. Formuvannya sotsiokulturnoyi kompetentnosti maybutnikh perekladachiv u protsesi fakhovoyi pidhotovky. Nauka i osvita. 2: 51–56. http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/NiO_2015_2_12.
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    5. Skyba, K. 2014. Osoblyvosti ta sutnist pidhotovky perekladachiv v universytetakh Kanady. Molod i rynok: shchomisyachnyy naukovo-pedahohichnyi zhurnal. 3 (110): 88–92.
    6. Toper, P. 1998. Perevod i literatura: tvorcheskaya lichnost perevodchika. Voprosy literatury.6: 161–178.
    7. Cherednychenko, O. 2009. Perekladatskyy dorobok Hryhoriya Kochura: do 100 – litnioho yuvileyu Maistra. Vsesvit. 5−6: 185–190.
    8. Gakova, Ye. V., Nikitina, E. K. 2014. Competency – Based Approach to Effective Performance of Future Competent and Creative Translators of Professionally Oriented Texts. Moscow State Pedagogical University. European Scientific Journal March 2014 edition vol.10, No.8 ISSN: 1857–7881 (Print) e – ISSN 1857-7431-259
    9. Harris, B., Sherwood, B. 1978. Translating as an Innate Skill. In Gerver, D. & Sinaiko, H. (Eds.), Language, Interpretation and Communication. New York: Plenum Press. P. 155−170.
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    12. Mackenzie, R. 1998. Creative Problem-Solving and Translator Training. In A. Beylard-Ozeroff, J. Králová & B. Moser-Mercer (eds.), Translators‟ Strategies and Creativity, Amsterdam& Philadelphia, John Benjamins.
    13. Nord, Ch. 1994. Text in Situations (a functional model for text analysis in translation teaching). Perevod i Lingvistika Teksta. Мoscow.
    14. Nord, Ch. 1991. Text Analysis in Translation: Theory, Methodolgy and Didactic Application of Translationoriented Text Analysis. Amsterdam – Atlanta: Rodopi.
    15. PACTE Group. 2000. Acquiring translation competence: Hypotheses and methodological problems in a research project. In A. Beeby, D. Emsinger & M. Presas (eds), Investigating Translation, Amsterdam, Benjamins.
    16. Pattison, A. 2007. Painting with words. Perspectives on Creative Writing and Translation Studies. – L.: Continuum.
    17. Worobjowa, T. 2013. Development of Critical and Creative Thinking Through Mindmapping. Oswiata i Nauka Bez Granic PRO FUTURO. Knowledge. Education. Law. Management. 2 (1): 50–64. Lodz.

  7. Hedz Svitlana. Lexical, Semantic and Pragmatic Characteristics of Mixed Type Interrogative Sentences in Modern English. – P. 29–34.
     The article is devoted to the study of the questions which being general by their structure require not only the confirmation or denial of their propositional content but also the clarification of certain components. The uniqueness of such interrogative sentences lies in the fact that in this case a special question (WH-question) functions in the interrogative sentence of a different type, namely, in a general question. Interrogative sentences of this type are considered as a  mixed type interrogative sentences. The need for clarification of a particular component in such questions may be manifested either explicitly or implicitly. The explicit meaning is displayed with the help of the explicit expression of the whole semantic structure of the interrogative sentence, i.e., by means of the inquiry about competence and the subject of the inquiry. The implicit request for information is carried out by using deictic words and the indefinite pronouns which indicate that there is a gap in the speaker‟s knowledge that must be filled in with some relevant information.
    Key words: interrogative sentences, mixed type interrogative sentences, deictic words, indefinite pronouns, addressee, sender.
    1. Hedz, Svitlana. 1998. “Komunikatyvno-pragmatychni osoblyvosti vyslovliuvan z interogatyvnym znacheniam u suchasnii angliiskii movi”. Dys PhD. Kyyiv. 43–49.
    2. Dudnik, L. 1982. “Ekstralingtvisticheskaia obuslovlienost variativnost  rechi (na matierialie  strukturnyh variantov rechevogo deistviia”. Dys PhD. Moskva. 70.
    3. Pochentsov, O. 1979. Semantika i pragmatika voprositelnogo priedlozheniia (na materialie angliiskogo yazyka). Dys PhD. Kyyiv. 173.
    4. Eastwood, John. 1995. Oxford Guide to English Grammar. 446. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
    5. Кiefer, Ferenc. 1980. “Yes-No Questions as WH-Questions” Speech Act Theory and Progmatics. 97-119. Boston: Reidel.
    6. Ackroyd, Peter. 1993. Hawksmoor. London: Penguin Books.
    7. Capote, Truman. 1989. A Capote Reader. London: An Abacus Book.
    8. Chandler, Raymond. 1985. Farewell, My Lovely. London: Penguin Books.
    9. Clancy, Thomas. 1990. Clear and Present Danger. Glasgow: Harper Collins.
    10. Fitzgerald, Francis Scott. 1973. The Great Gatsby. K.: Dnipro. 11. Hailey, Arthur. 1986. Strong Medicine. New York: A Dell Book.
    12. Hemingway, Ernest. 1971. Selected Stories. Moscow: Progress.
    13. Hillerman, Tony. 1982. People of Darkness. Ottawa, Avon Books.
    14. Le Carre, John.  1987. A Murder of Quality. London: Penguin Books.
    15. Morris, John. 1993. Revenge at the Rodeo. New York: Baker Book.
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  8. Grybok Olena. Implicity Manifestation of Stereotypes in the Every-day Discourse. – P. 34–39.
    The article deals with the finding of indicators of implicit stereotypes in the every-day discourse of Germans and their influence on the process of communication through the formation of a model of linguistic behavior in order to achieve the success of speech acts, especially during the interpretation of indirect speech acts. These indicators include lexical items with contextualization function belonging to the family of words or lexical-semantic field, grammar tools, case phenomena, allusion elements, metaphors and comparisons. The implicite stereotypes exist at the level of presuppositions, in particular in the knowledge of the world, situation, text, everyday knowledge, and are found at the level of implicators of discourse, among which the most effective were the maxim of modality and the maxim of relevancy. This article deals with the finding of indicators of implicit stereotypes in the everyday discourse of Germans, and their influence on the process of communication by the formation of a model of linguistic behaviour in order to achieve success in speech acts, especially during the interpretation of indirect speech acts. These indicators include lexical items with a contextualization function belonging to the family of words or lexical-semantic field, grammar tools, case phenomena, allusion elements, metaphors and comparisons. Implicit stereotypes exist at the level of presuppositions, in particular with respect to the knowledge of the world, situation, text, everyday knowledge, and are found at the level of implicators of discourse, among which the most effective were the maxim of modality and the maxim of relevancy.
    Key words:  implicature, implicit stereotype, indicator, contextualization, presupposition.
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    2. Grice, Herbert Paul. 1985. “Logika i Rechevoie Obshcheniie”. In Novoie v zarubezhnoi lingvistike, 16: 217–238. Moskva: Progress.
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    4. Bubenhofer, Noah. 2009. Sprachgebrauchsmuster. Korpuslinguistik als Methode der Diskurs- und Kulturanalyse (Sprache und Wissen). Berlin; New York: de Gruyter.
    5. Feilke, Helmut. 2009. Oberfläche und Performanz: Untersuchung zur Sprache als dynamischer Gestalt (Monte Verita). Tübingen: Niemeyer.
    6. Wunderlich, Dieter. 2007. Pragmatik, Sprechsituationen. Frankfurt: Deixix.
    7. Böll, H. 2008. Der Lacher. München: Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, 37–40.
    8. Danella, U. 2008. Szene aus dem Familienleben. München: Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, 141–154.
    9. Kessler, K. 2011. Der Tag, an dem Ich Beschloss, meinen Mann zu Dressieren. München: Diana Verlag.
    10. Sanders, E. 1986. Radau im Reihenhaus. München: Wilhelm Heyne.
    11. “Sichtwechsel Elf Kapitel zur Sprachsensibilisierung”. 1984 In Ein Deutschkurs für Fortgeschririttene. Stuttgart: Emst Klett Verlage VG.
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    13. Wahrig, G. 2008. Deutsches Wörterbuch. Gütersloh: Wissen-Media-Verlag.

  9. Derezhytska Tetiana. The Factors of the Auto- and Hetero Images Determination in the G. Orwell’s Novel “The Burmese Days”. – P. 39–44.
    The article analyzes the peculiarities of the formation and development of auto- and hetero images exemplified by the G. Orwell‟s novel “The Burmese Days”. The basic methods aimed at explaining the complex mechanism of creating images are comparative method, contextual analysis and close reading technique. It is stated that auto and hetero images bear the imprint of cultural, historical and social processes. Orientalism, the “imperial syndrome”, racial xenophobia and cultural imperialism play a key role in the British successful colonization and maintenance of their mighty. The influence of mental constructions (that of Orientalism and cultural imperialism) on the creation of the British prejudices against the Burmese is demonstrated. In addition, the echo of the “imperial syndrome” in the novel makes it possible to interpret the images of the subordinate people from the viewpoint of binary oppositions: colonizer / colonized, stronger / weaker. The developmental pattern of racial xenophobia developed in the diachronic plane explains the hostile relations between two nations. Taken together, all the factors structure the peculiarities of the existing relations between the British and the Burmese. In addition, they facilitate the reception of created images in the novel. The possibility of one national identification at the expense of another is claimed. The phenomenon of transferring the British way of ruling to its colonial territory in Burma as an indicator of the effectiveness of this practice outside the metropolis is demonstrated. The article will be of use to literary critics who specialize in imagological and comparative branches of literature.
    Key words and phrases:  auto- and hetero image, cultural imperialism, imperial syndrome, orientalism, xenophobia, G. Orwell, “The Burmese Days”.
    1. Budnyi,Vasyl and  Ilnytskyi, Mykola. 2008. Comparative literary studies: textbook. Kyiv: Vydavnychyi dim Kyievo-Mohylanska akademiia.
    2. Nalyvaiko, Dmytro. 2006. “Literaturna imaholohia: predmet i stratehii” Тeoriia literatury i komparatyvistyka. Kyiv: Vydavnychyi dim Kyievo-Mohylanska akademiia.
    3.Said, Edward. 2001. Oriientalizm, per. z angl. V. Shovkun. Kyiv: Osnovy.
    4. Dyserinck, Hugo. 2003. “Imagology and the Problem of Ethnic Identity»”. Intercultural Studies: Scholarly Review of the IAIS, Spring, №1. Accessed  October 23, 2017. http://www.intercultural-studies.org/ICSI/Dyserinck.s html
    5. Orwell, George. 1934. Burmese Days. Accessed November 8, 2017. https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/o/orwell/ george/o79b/

  10. Dmytrasevych Nataliia. Ways of Expressing the Emotional and Appraisal Value of Names of Identifiers in the Fiction Text (on the Material of the French Language). – P. 45–50.
    The article outlines the specifics of the expression of the emotional color of personal names in the examples of French literature of the twentieth century and identifies the types of variants of emotionally coloured personal names on the paradigmatic and syntagmatic levels. Name-identifier, the basis of which is a personal name, is used not only to identify a person, but also at the same time to express the emotional and appraisal attitude of the author of the speech to the bearer. Since the normative form of a personal name is always neutral, any deviations from this norm are emotionally colored. In the paradigmatic analysis, the personal name is compared with other forms of the name used to identify the same person and acts as the only verbal sign that forms the name-identifier. The emotional value of a personal name can be detected by comparison with its normative variant. Depending on the nature of the modification of the normative form, we distinguish three types of variants: phonetic and spelling; word formation and syntactic. We include into the sub-group of word-formation variants, first of all, the hypo-cortical forms of personal names, the process of formation of which is much less ordered and regulated than hypocritical form-making from common names. The entire composition of the name is considered under syntagmatic analysis – they include not only the personal name, but also any determinant or subject-evaluative definition. Such a way of expressing an emotional and appraisal value is the most characteristic feature of the French language being analytical in its composition. It is obvious that the denomination-identifiers introduced by a marked / undefined article, an indicative adjective, a possessive adjective serve to convey some emotional and evaluative content, since the appearance of determinants in them is not conditioned by the needs of identification. In determining the character of emotionally-evaluative value of identifiers (positive or negative), the role of the context must be emphasized. Our study opens up opportunities for further analysis of the poly-functionality of French personal fiction names on the material of various genres of French literature and in different styles of speech.
    Key words: personal names, name-identifier, artistic text, paradigmatic analysis, syntagmatic analysis.
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    6. Bazin,  Hervé. 1972. La Mort du Petit Cheval. Paris: B. Grasset. 7. Damourette, Jacques. Pichon, Eduoard. 1937. Des Mots à la Pensée. Paris : Collections des linguistes contemporains.
    8. Dard, Frédéric. 1973. Béru-Béru. Paris : Presses pocket.
    9. Dauzat, Albert. 1994. Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille et Prénoms de France. Paris : Larousse.
    10. Druon, Maurice. 1972. Les Grandes Familles. Paris : Le livre de poche.
    11. Duhamel, Georges. 1947. Chronique des Pasquier. Paris : Julliard.
    12. Gide,  André. 1956. Les Faux Monnayeurs. Paris : Gallimard. 13. Grevisse, Maurice. 1969. Le Bon Usage. Paris : Hatier.
    14. Guth, Paul. 1965. Le Naїf aux Quarante Enfants.  Paris : Eds Albin Michel.
    15. Jonasson, Kerstin. 1992. Les Noms Propres Métaphoriques: Construction et Interprétation. Gembloux : Duculot.
    16. Kurilowicz, Jerzy. 1966. La Position Linguistique du Nom Propre. Wroclav : Esquisses Linguistiques.
    17. Lanoux, Armand. 1967. Quand la Mer se Retire. Paris : Julliard.
    18. Le Bihan, Michèle. 1978. “Note sur les Noms Propres”. Linguisticae Investigationes. 2 :419–427.
    19. Molino, Jean. 1982. “Le Nom Propre dans la Langue”. Langages. 66 : 5–20.
    20. Queneau, Reymond. 1966. Le Dimanche de la Vie. Paris : Gallimard.
    21. Troyat, Hervé. 1976. La Faim des Lionceaux. Paris : J‟ai lu.

  11. Dobzhanska-Knight Nataliia, Luts Svitlana. Specialized Text as an Object of Machine Translation (Comparative Analysis). – P. 50–57.
    The article deals with the problem of translation of specialized texts with the help of machine translation. The article analyses the characteristics and quality of the translation of materials with scientific and technical orientation, as well as legal documents. The basic methods of evaluating machine translation of texts are outlined. With the help of the selected parameters of evaluation and free online translators Pragma, Online.ua, MyMemory and Tetran, two groups of specialized text translations have been analyzed and compared: user manuals and legal documents (EU documents and UN documents). An attempt has been made at evaluating the quality of translation of sentences from both domains which are characterized by different styles, grammar and vocabulary, and compiling a typology of mistakes made by the mentioned online translators. We have also compared the translation quality in each domain, as well as the work of each of the analyzed online-translators (those that offer the technical and legal domain choice, or those that have translation memory). The publication focuses on the typical mistakes made in the process of translation of technical and legal texts, provides supervised examples of mistakes made by machine translators, and compares the machine translation work with examples of model translation done by a professional human translator of the text, in order to check the adequacy of the machine translation. On the basis of the study of the specifics of specialized texts and methods of evaluation of translation, we conclude that, despite the complexity of the terminology, the online translators made fewer mistakes in translations of legal texts than in translation of technical texts. The analysis of the work of machine translators also shows that the translators which use translation memory make fewer errors than those that allow users to select the branch of translation. The conclusions drawn in the article can be used during theoretical substantiation and practical development of the methodology for the translation of specialized texts with the help of machine translators.
    Key words:  specialized text, machine translation, evaluation of machine translation, domain translation, parameters of evaluation.
    1. Biryukov, Andriy. 2006. Otsinka yakosti systemy mashynnoho perekladu “Prahma 4.4” z nimets‟koukrayins‟koyu movnoyu paroyu. Ternopil: Studia Methodologica.
    2. Hal‟peryn, Il‟ya. 1981. Tekst yak ob‟yekt linhvistychnoho doslidzhennya. Moskva : Nauka.
    3. Yemelina, Olena. 2011. Hramatychni osoblyvosti perekladu yurydychnykh tekstiv. Moskva.
    4. Ohchr. 1989. “Convention on the Rights of the Child.” http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/ Pages/CRC.aspx 5. Morokhovskiy, A., Vorobyova, O., Lykhosherst, H., Tymoshenko, Z. 1991. Stylistyka anhliys‟koyi movy. Kyiv: Vyshcha shkola.
    6. Norma. “Pereklad yurydychnykh tekstiv.” http://www.norma-tm.ru.
    7. Chernikova, L. 2013. Linhvistychna yakist‟ mashynnoho perekladu.
    8. Shcherbakova, Iryna. 2015. Osoblyvosti perekladu tekhnichnykh tekstiv. Rostov-na-Donu.
    9. Yakovyna V., Masyukevych V. 2013. Ohlyad ta analiz metryk otsinyuvannya yakosti perekladu. Lviv.
    10. Arnold, Douglas, Balkan, Lorna, Meijer Siety, Humphreys Lee. R., Sadler Louisa. 1994. Machine Translation. An Introductory Guide. NCC Blackwell, London.
    11. Mcgrp. “Braun 130 Series 1 User Manual.” https://mcgrp.ru/files/viewer/39704/4#navigate_bar
    12. Zakon2.rada. 1989. “Konventsiya pro prava dytyny.” http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_021
    13. Darwish, A. 2001. Transmetrics: A Formative Approach to Translator Competence Assessment and Translation Quality Evaluation for the New Millennium. Australia : RMIT University. 14. Jolley, Jason, Maimone, Luciane. 2013 Free Online Machine Translation: Use and Perceptions by Spanish Students and Instructors. United States: Gorgetown University, Missouri State University.
    15. Mymemory. “MyMemory.” http://mymemory.translated.net/ 16. Online.ua [Electronic resource]. – Access mode : https://pereklad.online.ua/ukr/
    17. Snover, M., Dorr, B., Schwartz, R., Micciulla, L., Makhoul, J. 2006. “A Study of Translation”. Proceedings of the 7th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas. Cambridge, MA.
    18. Tetran. “Tetran.” http://www.tetran.ru/OnLineTranslatorEn#goto
    19. Trident Software [Electronic resource]. – Access mode : http://www.translate.ua/uk/pragma-6x/on-line-translator
    20. Zaretskaya, Anna, Pastor, Gloria Corpas, Seghiri, Miriam. 2016 A Quality Evaluation Template for Machine Translation.

  12. Yefymchuk Halyna. Sociocultural Factors of the Concept of ARROGANCE Formation in British World View. – P. 58–63.
     This article presents the analysis of socio-cultural aspect of the concept of ARROGANCE in the British world view. The features of the British world view and mentality has been considered, as well as the factors influencing their formation. As the concept of ARROGANCE is the essential part of British world view and one of the hallmarks of the British mentality, it reflects the historical development and cultural life of the British community. The article investigates the concept of ARROGANCE verbalization under the influence of such sociocultural factors as national ideology, class stratification and imperial policy. The ways of representation of the concept of ARROGANCE are demonstrated with the examples from fiction and mass media as well as modern speech samples and slang. The examples of lexical and phraseological units reflecting the main aspects of arrogance in British culture have been selected and analyzed.  Arrogance based on the class inequality through the prism of historical changes in the class structure of the British society. The layer of vocabulary that reflects the arrogance of the upper classes of society to the lower ones has been distinguished. The article also provides several samples of slang lexemes and phrases used to express superiority in the youth subcultures. Arrogance based on the national mentality was formed under the influence of the colonial policy of the British Empire, as well as the biased attitude of the British to the inhabitants of the continent. It is verbalized by means of national insults and jokes. Linguistic arrogance is connected to the class inequality, since language indicates belonging to certain class and social group. The analysis of the verbalization of the concept of ARROGANCE enables us to establish the peculiar sociocultural features of it in the British world and and outline the prospects for its further study.
    Кey words and phrases: concept, world view, concept of ARROGANCE, mentality, sociocultural aspect, linguocultural community.
    1. Hromyko, Aleksey. 2005. “Velikobritaniya posle zahoda solntsa” In Rossiya v globalnoy politike. Last modified December 13, 2005.  http://www.globalaffairs.ru/number/n_5980
    2. Karnaukhova, Oksana. 2007. “Multikulturalizm kak paradigma postkolonialnogo razvitiya (britanskaya model)” In Lichnost. Kultura. Obshchestvo. 196–204
    3. Orwell, George. 1950. 1984. New York: New American Library. 4. Orwell, George. 1941. England Your England. http://orwell.ru/library/essays/lion/english/e_eye
    5. Oxford English dictionary. Accessed November, 2017. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/
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    7. Sweet, Henry S. 1890. Primer of Spoken English. Oxford: Oxford Clarendon Press.
    8. The Free Dictionary by Farlex. Accessed December, 2017. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/
    9. The Septic‟s Companion. A British Slang Dictionary. http://septicscompanion.com/
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    11. Urban Dictionary. Accessed December, 2017. http://www.urbandictionary.com

  13. Zasiekin Serhii, Iskra Iryna. Methods of Reproducing Language of Elves in The Lord of the Rings Trilogy by J. R. R. Tolkien. – P. 63–66.
    The article outlines the main translation methods of the J. R. R. Tolkien‟s language of elves. We have studied linguistic and stylistic features of elves‟ language. The history of artlangs‟ creation was also investigated. The aim of this research was to define key strategies of reproducing artistic language in Ukrainian. The examples of artistic languages in three Ukrainian-language translations have been analyzed. A comparative analysis of translating nonequivalent lexical units  into Ukrainian was carried out on the basis of three translation versions of the trilogy The Lord of the Rings trilogy by O. Mokrovolskyi, A. Nemirova and K. Onischuk. The key strategies for the translation of the elven language were singled out. Among three main methods of artlangs‟ translation are transcoding, morphogrammatical modifications and transcoding with elements of translocation. The strategy of domestication is dominating in the Ukrainian versions of the trilogy.
    Key words:  artlang, conlang, strategy, translation, nonequivalent lexical units. 
    1. Kushnir, L. 2016. “Stratehii vidtvorennia “movnoi polifonii” tvoriv J. R. R. Tolkiena v ukraiinskykh perekladah.” Naukovyi Visnyk of Kherson State University, 18–26.
    2. Rebrii, I. 2014. “Stratehii perekladatskoho vidtvorennia artlangiv.” Zistavni Studii ta Perekladoznavstvo, 55–62.
    3. Rebrii I. 2016. “Stratehichnyi aspect perekladu artlangiv.” Naukovyi Visnyk of Ivan Franko Drohobych State University. Vol. 2, No. 5. 83–86.
    4. Rebrii, I. 2017. “Movni ta etnomentalni osoblyvosti perekladatskoho vidtvorennya artlangiv”. Summary of Ph. D. dissertation. Kherson.
    5. Auden, W. 1968. “The quest hero” In Tolkien and the Critics. Essays on J.R.R. Tolkien‟s the Lord of the Rings, 40–61. L.: Univ. of Notre Dame Press.
    6. Tolkien, J. R. R. 2002. The Lord of the Rings. London: HarperCollins.
    7. Languages constructed by J. R. R. Tolkien. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_constructed_by_J._R._R._ Tolkien.
    8. The Chronicle of Arda. http://www.glyphweb.com/arda/chronicle.html
    9. The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien. A Selection. 2000. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company.

  14. Kashchyshyn Nataliia. Emotivity as an Inherent Discursive Category of Modern English-language Diplomatic Discourse. – P. 66–73.
    This article is devoted to the research of the discursive category of emotivity in modern English diplomatic discourse. The concept of the category of emotivity is specified and its place in the categorical grid of discursive categories of diplomatic discourse is determined. It is stated that the category of emotivity, together with the means that generate it, serves to facilitate the transfer of information in the diplomatic field. It makes it possible simultaneously to attract attention and to convey ideas, or else to incorporate vagueness into the expression of ideas, or to conceal or disguise certain elements. In this article an analysis is given of lexical and stylistic resources by which this category is manifested in diplomatic texts. Particular attention is given to the analysis of diplomatic communication as an environment for the verbalization of emotive resources. A critical review of the subject area of diplomatic discourse was carried out and the peculiarities of its sublanguage has been described. It is illustrated that emotionality is actually a characteristic feature of diplomatic communication and it may be evident both at the verbal and the nonverbal level. The author seeks to demonstrate that nonverbal means play a role that is no less important role in diplomacy than verbal means. Particular emphasis is placed on silence as one of the forms of non-verbal communication. It is highlighted that silence is a special context for speech and, at the same time, a special form of communication in diplomacy. Among the main means that serve to express the discursive category of emotivity, the author emphasizes the necessity of analysing metaphor. As an effective strategy for analyzing diplomatic metaphor, the author suggests differentiating between pragmatic and communicative types. In this paper a description of the pragmatic communicative type “dangerous metaphor” is presented. This study made it possible to characterize the discourse-forming potential of metaphor in its verbal and nonverbal manifestations based on the source material of diplomatic speeches and twitter microblogs by diplomats.
    Key words: diplomatic discourse, discursive category, category of emotivity, metaphor, sublanguage.
    1. Batsevych, Floriy and Kochan, Iryna. 2016. Linhvistyka Tekstu. – Lviv: LNU imeni Ivana Franka.
    2. Vaulina, S. S. and Devina, O. V. 2010. “Avtorskaia Modalnost kak Tekstoobrazuiushchaia Kategoriia (k Postanovke Problemy).” In Vestnik Rossiyskogo gosudarstvennogo un-ta im. I. Kanta, 8: 13–21.
    3. Vittenshtain, L. 1995. TractatusLogico-Philosoficus: filosofski doslidzhennia. Kyiv.
    4. Karasyk, V. I. 1998. “O Katehoriiaakh Diskursa.” In Yazykovaia lichnos: sotsiolyngvisticheskie i emotivnye aspekty. Volgograd; Saratov: Peremena, 185–197.
    5. Kashchyshyn, N. S. 2017. “Dyplomatychnyi Dyskurs yak Vyd Instytutsiinoho Dyskursu.” In Naukovi zapysky. Ser.: Filolohichni nauky. Kropyvnytskyi: Vyd. Lysenko V. F., 153: 232–235.
    6. Kashchyshyn, N. S. 2016. “Dyskursyvni Katehorii Anhlomovnoho Dyplomatychnoho Dyskursu.” In Aktualni pytannia inozemnoii filolohii: nauk. zhurn. Lutsk: Skhidnoievrop. nats. un-t im. Lesi Ukrainky, 5: 53–58.
    7. Kashchyshyn, N. S. 2014. “Ekspresyvnist Terminiv Anhlomovnoho Dyplomatychnoho Dyskursu.” In Naukovi zapysky Nizhynskoho derzhavnoho universytetu im. Mykoly Hoholia. Ser.: Filolohichni nauky, 2: 93–98.
    8. Kashchyshyn, N. S. 2017. “Multymodalna Metafora ta Metaftonimiia v Dyplomatychnomu Dyskursi”. In Suchasnyi vymir filolohichnykh nauk, 109–111.
    9. Kashchyshyn, N. S. Osoblyvosti Dyplomatychnoi Movy: Istoriia Sohodennia. http://everest-center.com/blog/ osoblivosti-diplomatichnoyi-movi-istoriya-i-sogodennya
    10. Kochan, Irzna. 2009. “Tekstovi Katehorii: Problemy Vyokremlennia i Traktuvannia u Suchasnii Nautsi.” In Linhvistyka, 9: 20–25.
    11. Meshcheriakov, V. N. 2001. “Modalnost Teksta.” In Filologicheskie nauki, 4: 99–105.
    12. Selyvanova, Elena. 2004. Osnovy Lingvisticheskoi Teorii i Kommunikatsyi. Kiev: TSUL, Fitosotsyotsentr.
    13. Serazhym K. S. 2003. Dyskurs yak SSotsiolinhvalnyi Fenomen Suchasnoho Komunikatyvnoho Prostoru (Metodolohichnyi, Prahmatyko-Semantychnyi i Zhanrovo-Linhvistychnyi Aspekty). PhD diss., Kyiv.
    14. Cohen, R. 1997. Negotiating a Cross Cultures: International Communication in an Interdependent World. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
    15. Danesi, M., and Perron, P. 1999. Analyzing Cultures : An Introduction and Handbook. Bloomington; IN: Indian University Press.
    16. Foss, S. 1996. Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice. – Prospect Heights; IL: Waveland.
    17. Kamel, S. A. J. 2001. “Language and Diplomacy”. In Language and Diplomacy. Malta: DiploProjects, 49–54.
    18. Kashchyshyn, N. “Metaphors in the English Diplomatic Discourse : Their Roleand Functions”. In 37th Annual Meeting of the Department of Linguistics. Aristotle University of The Ssaloniki, 12−14 May, 2016. – Retrieved from : http://www.lit.auth.gr/amgl37/Poster/Kashchyshyn.pdf
    19. Kashchyshyn, N. 2013. “Rituality in Diplomacy. Terminologica Embodiment”. In Science and Education a New Dimension. Budapest, 11: 116–120.
    20. Kashchyshyn, N. 2016. “The Linguistics of Emotionsin Oral Diplomatic Communication”. In Spoken Communication 2016 : GSCP International Conferencein Naples, 13−15 June 2016. Naples: Accademia Pontaniana; University of Naples “L‟ Orientale”, 52–53.
    21. Kashchyshyn, N. 2016. “The Role of Metaphors in the Language of Diplomacy”. In Metaphor in the Arts, in Media and Communication. – Berlin: Freie UniversitatBerlin, Germany, 124–125. Retrieved from : http://www.raam2016. geisteswissenschaften.fu-berlin.de/programme/RaAM-Book-of-Abstracts_WEB.pdf
    22. Kashchyshyn, N. 2017. “Translating Metaphors of the Diplomatic Discourse: Theory and Practice”. In Colloque International Metrad 2017 “La Metaphoreetla Traduction”. France: University of Toulon, 24.
    23. Lakoff, G., and Johnson, M. 1980. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  15. Kinakh Liliana. Linguocultural Peculiarities of Weather Superstitions in German. – P. 73–78.
     This article focuses on the study of the linguocultural peculiarities of German weather-related superstitions. They reflect the life experience of farmers from the Middle Ages onward, and inform their descendants about the specifics of their farming activities, such as their daily routine, their living conditions, their production tools, their food and clothing, as well as about their observations of weather and nature throughout the calendar year and the objective regular patterns which are linked with that, such as when farmers should start sowing their crops, put their cattle out to graze, begin their harvesting operations in their fields and gardens, and go out hunting. A wide range of long-term weather observations is considered, including those related to wind, thunder, lightning, rain, dew, snow, clouds, and rainbows, as well as observations relating to examples in the world of animals and plants. Some historical facts related to the weather German superstitions in German are elucidated, and correlations of weather superstitions with certain days in the church calendar are traced, as well as astrological influences on weather forecasting. Particular attention is devoted to the so-called “predictive” days in the calendar (Lostage), during which farmers watched weather phenomena with particular care, making long-term or shortterm forecasts and hoping for the patronage of the saints. A number of lexical, semantic and stylistic features of German weather superstitions are defined. In the obsolete names of the months of the year, which are often found in the weather superstitions, especially prominent weather characteristics of these months are manifested, and the derivation of these words from the names of farming activities carried out at this time, as well as the names of specific types of flora and fauna, are observed. The article demonstrates the quantitative superiority of weather superstitions associated with the spring months, when fieldwork customarily begins, and the way in which farmers used hints from nature to try to predict how good the harvest would be. The article analyzes some peculiarities of the sentence structure of weather superstitions, the use of “magic” numbers 4, 7, 12, and 40 in weather superstitions, original emotional-evaluative comparisons, metaphors and personification phenomena. These points all point to the importance and the cultural and historical significance of these distinctive examples of the folk creativity of the German people.
    Key words: calendar, culture, meteorological observations, weather superstitions, “predictive” days.
    1. Eisbrenner, Rudolph, Hrsg. 1997. Das große Buch der Bauernweisheiten: 3333 Sprichwörter, Redensarten und Wetterregeln. Würzburg: Stürtz.
    1. Hoffmann-Krayer, Eduard, Hrsg. 1938−1941. Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens. Band IX. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    1. Kostenzer, Helene, and Otto Kostenzer. 1975. Alte Bauernweisheit. Rosenheim: Förg.
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  16. Kovalchuk Olena. Semantic Changes in Proper Names. – P. 78–84.
    Researching eponyms from the point of view of contrastive linguistics is a promising direction since most of research in this field has so far been random and sporadic. Therefore, the necessity exists to develop a general scientific and methodological basis for researching this pary of the vocabulary. The article studies semantic changes in the formation of eponyms in the English and Ukrainian languages. The study of semantic changes is held on the basis of distinguishing five types of semantic changes (widening of meaning, narrowing of meaning, name transfer, that is metaphoric or metonymic shift, degradation of meaning or elevation of meaning). The material for analysis constituted 250 eponyms in each language selected from etymological dictionaries. It has been established that in both languages the majority of semantic changes belong to the so called metonymic shift. The typology of semantic shifts has been developed and fourteen types of semantic shifts distinguished. The typology is just basic so far, but will be widened throughout the research with the growth of the number of the researched eponyms. It has been established that the meaning of new eponyms are closely connected with the sense given to them by the original words. The results of the research prove that the most frequent basis for the creation of a new eponym is the name of a person, the second one veing the name of a city or a geographical area Each type has been analyzed and supplied with the examples from both languages. It has been found out that the similarity between the corresponding types in the English and Ukrainian languages is rather high. Divergences are explained by cultural, historical and other extralinguistic factors. Directions of further analysis have been suggested, in particular the further development of the typology of semantic changes in the formation of eponyms as well as the detailed study of the influence of extralinguistic factors on the cre4ation of eponyms in both languages.
    Key words: semantic shift, metonymic shift, eponym, extralinguistic factors, intralinguistic processes.
    1. Etymologichnyi slovnyk ukrayinskoyi movy: u 7 t. 1983–2012. Ed. by Melnychuk Olexandr. Kyiv. Naukova dumka.
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    3. Korunets, Ilko. 2003. Porivnialna typologiya angliyskoyi ya ukrayinskoyi mov. Vinnytsia. Nova knyga.
    4. Kuznetsov, Alexandr. 1980. Strukturno-semanticheskiye parametry v leksike: na materiale angliyskogo yazika. Moskva. Nauka.
    5. Milash, Kateryna. 2013. Funktsionalno-zmistova struktura eponimiv ta eponimichnyh konstruktsiy (na materiali angliyskoyi, ukrayinskoyi ta rosiyskoyi mov). Sumy. SumDU: 55–57.
    6. Novinskaya, Nina. 2005. “Klassifikatsiya eponimicheskikh nazvaniy po semanticheskomu priznaku. Semanticheskiye polia”. Vestnik AGTU. №5 (28): 147–153.
    7. An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. 1921. Ed. By Weekley E. London: Cambridge University press.
    8. Bragina, Nina and Lubensky, Sviatoslav. 2009. “Eponyms as Cultural Key Words and Their Lexicographic Description in English and Russian”. Bilingual Lexicography: 419–427.

  17. Koliada Elina. Semantics of the English Phraseologisms Denoting Masculinity. – P. 84–89.
    The article deals with the semantics of the English phraseological units denoting masculinity. Phraseology in the broad sense studies proverbs, sayings, aphorisms, comparisons, which correspond to the criteria of phraseologisms – are reproduced ready-made, characterized by structural and lexical stability, and have a figurative meaning. Masculinity is a set of attributes, behaviours, and roles associated with men.  Phraseologiсal units reflect established gender stereotypes and social roles. In the phraseological fund of the English language we trace the fixation of the attributes of a real man. According to the obtained results of a semantic analysis of gender-marked phraseological units, a real man has to be brave, strong, enduring, strong-willed, self-assured, persistent, determined, and experienced. He is responsible for his words and deeds, and he does not give empty promises. Phraseological units characterize a real man as self-sufficient, independent, honest, and reliable. A real man feels he has found his true vocation, he likes his job. His business career is successful. He understands music and painting. The main mission and responsibility of a man is to be the head of the family.  Language reflects social and other kinds of changes in human life and activities. The semantics of lexical and phraseological innovations testifies to the fact that nowadays there is a considerable change in the way a stereotypical man is viewed.  In the mid 1990s the term „metrosexual‟ was coined denoting a man who lives in the city and spends a significant amount of time and money on his appearance. A new type of man is emerging in modern society. The age of the metrosexual has been exchanged for an era of spornosexual men obsessed with achieving perfect-looking physique.
    Key words: phraseological unit, semantics, gender, masculinity, real man, metrosexual, spornosexual.
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    8. Maslova, V. A. 2001. Lingvokulturologiia. Moskva : Akademiia.  9. Pavlenko, N. O. 2016. “Hendernyi komponent u strukturi i semantytsi anhliiskykh idiom-nominatsii liudyny za rodom diialnosti”. In Odeskyi linhvistychnyi visnyk. Odesa : Natsionalnyi universytet “Odeska yurydychna akademiia”, 7: 82–85.
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    12. Oxford Idioms Dictionary for Learners of English. 2003. Oxford : Oxford University Press.

  18. Ganna Krapivnyk. Mythological element in the detective genre.– P. 89-96.
    It is common knowledge that modern mass culture originates from mythology and folklore, which contain basic value-related images and symbols, and specific recurrent motifs. Many scholars analyze them from the standpoint of such humanitarian sciences as text linguistics, cultural studies, philosophy, sociology, psychology etc. Linguo-cultural research into the mythological element of the detective genre and texts shows its cultural value, reasons of stable popularity and significance for understanding any modern and post-modern literary and other media texts, including literary, television, cinematographic, computer, graphic etc. by the recipients with different level of training and background knowledge. The conveyed linguo-cultural study of detective mediatexts provided confirmation that myths, their structure, motifs and images-symbols are an integral part of nearly any crime fiction product as a representative of the modern, mainly, urban popular culture. Furthermore, the mythological formula determines a certain framework for creating new detective plots and works. The study singled out intertextual links, and common features of the fairy tale, mythological and detective formulae, sacred religious texts, their language representation and interpretation in the crime fiction products. In addition, it is shown that detective texts perform various social function, including entertaining, cognitive, ideological and even therapeutic one. The paper considers the image of a typical detective story protagonist and his or her archetypal mythological basis, features and essential traits of character. The research deals with the myth-related invariant stable characteristics of the detective text products and analyzes apocalyptical motifs as one of the ways to represent the mythological element, both in form and content, in the modern detective works. The study shows the reasons and bases of the topicality of eschatological apocalyptical motifs as major semantic elements, related to the Judaic-Christian mythology and generally with the modern Western culture in its broad understanding.
    Key words: mythological element, detective genre, fairy tale, apocalypse, media text, popular culture, motif.
    1. Aronson, O. 2007. Kommunikativny obraz (Kino. Literatura. Filosofiya). Moscow, Novoye literaturnoye obozreniye.
    2. Vetlesen, А. Yu. 2010. Filosofiya boli. Translated from Norwegian. Moscow, Progress-Tradition.
    3. Gasparov, B. М. 1993. Literaturnye leitmotivy. Ocherki po russkoy literature ХХ veka. Moscow: Nauka.
    4. Gorelov, А. А. 2002. Evoliutsiya kultury i ekologiya. Moscow: Institut filosofii RAN.
    5. Gurevich, P. S. 2010. Filosofskaya antropologiya. Moscow: Omega-L.
    6. Karmalova, Ye. Yu. 2008. Audiovizualnaya reklama v kontekste kultury: mif, literatura, kinematograf. SaintPetersburg: Saint-Petersburg University publisher.
    7. Markulan, Ya. 1975. “Detektiv. Chto eto takoye? Morfologiya zhanra”. In Zarubezhny kinodetektiv. Opyt izucheniya odnogo iz zhanrov burzhuaznoy massovoy kultury, 6–50. Leningrad: Iskusstvo.
    8. Propp, V. Ya. 1998. Poetika folklora (Collected works by V. Ya. Propp). Moscow: Labyrinth.
    9. Sabirov, V. Sh., Soina, О. S. 2010. Ideya spaseniya v russkoy filosofii. Saint-Petersburg, DMITRIY BULANIN.
    10. Sotsiologiya i kinematograph. 2010. Edited by Zhabsky, М. I. Moscow: Kanon+.
    11. Toporov, V. N. 1994. Mif. Ritual. Simvol. Obraz: Issledovaniye v oblasti mifopoeticheskogo: Izbrannoye. Moscow.
    12. Frey, J. N. 2005. Kak napisat‟ genialniy detektiv. Saint-Petersburg: Amfora.
    13. Scheler, М. 1991. “Chelovek i istoriya”. In Chelovek: obraz i sushchnost. Annual, 133–159. Moscow.
    14. Eco, U. 2007. Rol Chitatelia. Issledovaniya po semiotike teksta. Moscow: Simpozium.
    15. Barthes, R. 1984. Mythologies. Trans. by Annette Lavers, Hill and Wang, New York.
    16. Baudrillard, Jean. 2010. America. Verso; New Edition.
    17. Cawelti, John G. 1976. Adventure, Mystery, and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    18. Jackson, Cristina A. 2002. Myth and ritual in Women‟s Detective Fiction. Mcfarland & Co Inc.

  19. Krysanova Tetiana. Intеrsubjectivity of Emotions in Cinematic Discourse. – P. 96-103.
    The article focuses on the intersubjectivity of emotions as a means of their embodiment and its peculiar features in the English cinematic discourse. It is determined that the intersubjectivity forms a preverbal mechanism for construeing emotions, acting as a system of interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships. The intersubjectivity finds its manifestation on the nonverbal level revealing the person‟s desire to interact and realize meanings. The result of the intersubjective interaction is the bodily mimesis – an imaginary representation of the emotion by non-verbal means. The triadic bodily mimesis in the cinematic discourse reflects the communicative nature of embodiment and includes the subject, the recipient, and the intentional component that connects them. The recipient of a polycoded statement in the cinematic discourse, recognizing a bodily sign, determines the communicative intention of the subject. The triadic mimesis in the cinematic discourse focuses not only on the awareness of representative relations between the movements of the body and the object, but also on the communicative nature of such representative relationships. The embodiment of the joint emotion in the communication between the film author and the recipient of the cinematic discourse is based on pragmatic universals that reflect the intersubjective interaction between the author and the recipient of the cinematic discourse. The embodiment of the emotion of fear reflects its physiological manifestation and can take place in two basic forms: asthenic and sthenic. Mimic, kinetic, prosodic means, as well as a system of paralinguistic codes that actualize vegetative manifestations of the emotion, are typical markers for embodying fear. The embodiment of the emotion is based on the common experience of film authors and recipients – viewers and the emotional feeling of fear can influence their communicative behavior. The intersubjective nature of emotion embodiment in the cinematic discourse is predetermined by the fact that viewers identifiy Themselves with the Other through the interpersonal world.
    Key words: cinematic discourse, embodiment, emotion, intersubjectivity, nonverbal means.
    1. Izard, K. 2008. Emotsii cheloveka. Moskva : Direkt-Media.
    2. Ilin, E. 2001. Emotsii i chuvstva. Sankt-Petersburg : Piter.
    3. Leont‟ev, D. A. 2011. “Novye orientiry ponimanija lichnosti v psihologii: ot neobhodimogo k vozmozhnomu”. In Lichnostnyj potencial: struktura i diagnostika. Moskva : Smysl.
    4. Makarov, M. L. 2003. Osnovy teorii diskursa. Moskva : Gnozis.  5. Barrett, L. F., Niedenthal, P. M. and Winkielman, P. 2005. Emotion and consciousness. New York, London : The Guliford Press.
    6. Brinck, I. 2008. The Role of Intersubjectivity in the Development of Intentional Communication. In J. Zlatev, T. P. Racine, Ch. Sinha, E. Itkonen. The Shared Mind: Perspectives on Intersubjectivity, 115–140. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publ.
    7. Fusaroli, R., Demuru, P., Borghi, A. 2012. The intersubjectivity of Embodiment. Journal of Cognitive Semiotics. 4 (1) : 1−5.
    8. Grodal, T. 1999. Emotions, Cognitions, and Narrative Patterns in Film. In C. Platingo, G. M. Smith. Passionate View : Film, Cognition and Emotion, 127–145. Baltimore and London : The Johns Hopkins University Press.
    9. Husserl, E. 1983. Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy. First Book: General Introduction to a Pure Phenomenology. The Hague, Boston, Lancaster : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
    10. Laine, T. 2013. Shame and Desire: Emotion, Intersubjectivity, Desire. 2007. Brussels : Peter Lang.
    11. Merleau-Ponty, M. 2013. Phenomenology of Perception. London : Routledge.
    12. Rosemarie, A. 2010. Shared Movement. A Non-verbal Approach to Intersubjectivity. In S. Bender. Movement Analysis of Interaction. Berlin: Logos Verlag : 241−257.
    13. Tan, E. 1999. Sentiment in Film Viewing. In Carl Platingo and Greg M. Smith. Passionate View : Film, Cognition and Emotion, 48–64. Baltimore, London : The Johns Hopkins University Press. 14. Verhagen, A. 2008. Intersubjectivity and the architecture of the language system. In Jordan Zlatev, Timothy P. Racine, Chris Sinha, Esa Itkonen. The Shared Mind: Perspectives on Intersubjectivity, 307–332. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publ. 15. Zlatev, J. Racine, T. P., Sinha, Ch., Itkonen, E. 2008. Intersubjectivity: What Makes us Human? In Jordan Zlatev, Timothy P. Racine, Chris Sinha, Esa Itkonen. The Shared Mind: Perspectives of Intersubjectivity, 1-14. Amsterdam : John Benjamins Publ.
    16. Zlatev, J. The co-evolution of intersubjectivity and bodily mimesis. 2008. In Jordan Zlatev, Timothy P. Racine, Chris Sinha, Esa Itkonen. The Shared Mind: Perspectives of Intersubjectivity, 215–244. Amsterdam : John Benjamins Publ.
    17. Eastern Promise. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Eastern-Promises.html
    18. Fracture. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Fracture.html
    19. Lord of Illusions. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Lord-of-Illusions.html
    20. Belle. http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Belle.html

  20. Kulchytska Olena. Usage of TC@UC Methods or Hybrid Semantics in Pejorative’s Analysis. – P. 103-109.
    The article outlines the basic principles of hybrid semantics that employs both, descriptive and causal dimensions simultaneously, since there are many expressions, simple or complex, that are called mixed or hybrid expressions and that contribute to the general understanding of pejoratives or any other emotive words.  Pragmatic theories of “meaning as use” are often regarded as fundamentally opposed to traditional truth-conditional semantics. However, David Kaplan‟s researchshows conditions of use can and should have a place in formal approaches to natural language meaning. His project is based on the observation that for certain expressions of natural language, a correct semantic theory would state rules of use rather than something like a concept expressed. It is supported by Wittgenstein‟s Philosophical Investigations that for a large class of cases (though not for all) in which we employ the word meaning it can be defined thus: the meaningof a word is its use in the language (…) [1]. He develops a multidimensional approach to meaning, which the author calls hybrid semantics (HS) for short that incorporates use conditions alongside truth conditions in a unified framework. This system overcomes the observational, empirical gaps and theoretical and conceptual problems of previous frameworks of multidimensional semantics [2]. This approach is able to deal not only with the standard cases of pejoratives, but also with other kinds of use-conditional items that are often overlooked in the current literature. According to the researches in a field of HS, the idea is to use a use-conditional perspective to supplement truthconditional semantics, but not to replace it entirely, in order to extend conventional semantic methods to expressions and meaning aspects that, from a purely truth-conditional perspective, are considered to fall outside the scope of conventional semantics.
    Key words: hybrid semantics (HS), truth- and use-conditions, pejoratives, mode of expression.
    1. Wittgenstein‟s Philosophical Investigations. 1953. A Critical Guide. Edited by Arif Acmed. Cambridge University Press.
    2. Gutzmann, Daniel. 2015. Use-Conditional Meaning: Studies in Multidimensional Semantics. Oxford Studies in Semantics and Pragmatics.
    3. Genone, James, Lombrozo, Tania. 2012. “Concept possession, experimental semantics, and hybrid theories of reference”. Philosophical Psychology Vol. 25, No. 5.
    4. Evans, G. 1982.  The varieties of reference. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    5. Tenchimi, Maria Paola, Aldo, Frigerio.2016. A multi-act perspective on slurs. In Pejoration. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Edited by Rita Finkbeiner, Jorg Meibauer, Heike Wiese. Amsterdam/Philadelphia.
    6. Meyer, Stephanie. 2010. The short second life of Bree Tanner. Little, Brown publishing.
    7. Gutzmann, Daniel. 2009. Hybrid semantics for modal particles. Sprache und Datenverarbeitung. 33 (1–2).
    8. file:///C:/Users/k.elena/Downloads/davis-gutzmann_sub19.pdf 9. Goddard, Cliff. 1998. Semantic Analysis. A practical Introduction.Oxford University Press.
    10. Kaplan, David. 1999. The meaning of “ouch and oops”. Unpublished manuscript.
    11. Gutzmann, Daniel. 2015. Use-conditional meaning (Oxford studies in Semantics and Pragmatics 6). Oxford University Press.
    12. Gutzmann, Deniel, McCready, Eric. 2016. “Quantification with pejoratives”. In Pejoration. Edited by Rita Finkbeiner, Jorg Meibauer, Heike Wiese. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
    13. Malcolm Shuttleworth. 2015. Englische Schimpfwörter von A bis Z. Anaconda Verlag.
    14 Mayer, Stephenie. 2007. Eclipse. Little, Brown publishing.
    15. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iverson_bracket

  21. Kushneruk Svitlana. Terminological Filling of English Publicistic Green Marketing Texts. – P. 110-116.
    The article deals with the terminological filling of English green marketing professional articles. A comparative analysis of the primary and secondary spheres of the functioning of green marketing terms is conducted in this research. These spheres of the term functioning are presented with articles from professional scientific journals and newspaper articles. Recently, many linguists are interested in terminological issues, which arise at the joint of sciences. A separate place is given to the economic and ecological terminology, including the terminology of green marketing. Any terminology system is studied in the field of fixation and the field of functioning. We consider the last one more important, since the term is a linguistic unit which qualities and properties appear only in the text. The question of the filling of the text by professional terms is relevant because the terms are the basis of professional texts. In our research terminological filling is a fraction of terms among all used content words, which is expressed in percentage. We define it by formula, i. e. by dividing the number of all terms in the text into the number of all content words of these texts and multiplying the result by 100 %. During the analysis of the terminological filling of the articles, all the terms were divided into four groups: indisciplinary, interdisciplinary, general scientific terms and common everyday words, their relative frequency was calculated, and a comparison of their usage in English publicistic texts was made. In addition, the results of our research show that in the beginning of the text the number of terms is small, moreover, they express simple concepts; the frequency of their usage and their complexity increases with an increase in the distance from the beginning of the text. Thus, the terminological filling of professional green marketing texts depends on the level of scientific text, the concentration of text on a narrow professional problem, as well as on the author‟s style and his purpose.
    Key words: green marketing terminology system, terminological filling, in-disciplinary term, interdisciplinary term, general scientific term.
    1. Bondar, Olesya. 2015. “Linhvistychni osoblyvosti nimets‟koyi fakhovoyi movy ekolohiyi.” PhD dys. Kyyiv.
    2. Vyskushenko, Svitlana. 2017. “Terminolohichna nasychenist‟ tekstiv anhliys‟koyi fakhovoyi movy tvarynnytstva.” System of University Library. Accessed November 1. http://eprints.zu.edu.ua/14503/1/
    3. Vovchans‟ka, Svitlana. 2014. “Nimets‟ka fakhova mova marketynhu: strukturno-semantychnyy, linhvoprahmatychnyy ta funktsional‟nyy aspekty.” PhD dys. Ivano-Frankivs‟k.
    4. Hutyryak, Oksana. 1999. “Anhliys‟ka terminolohiya marketynhu: struktura ta semantychni kharakterystyky.” Thesis PhD dys. Kyyiv.
    5. Danylenko, Viktoria. 1971.  “Leksyko-semantycheskye y hrammatycheskye osobennosty slov-termynov.” Yssledovanyya po russkoy termynolohy, 43. Moskva: Nauka.
    6. Leychyk, Vladimir.  1990. “Osobennosty funktsyonyrovanyya termynov v tekste.” Fylolohycheskye nauky, 3: 80–87.
    7. Polishchuk, Natalya. 2012. “Mystets‟ka terminolohichna leksyka v hazetnomu teksti (na materiali hazet “Dzerkalo tyzhnya”, “Hazeta po-ukrayins‟ky”, “Vysokyy zamok”, “Skrynya”).” Visnyk Nats. un-tu “L‟vivs‟ka politekhnika”. Seriya “Problemy ukrayins‟koyi terminolohiyi”, 733: 216–222.
    8. Riba-Hrynyshyn, Oksana. 2013. “Typolohiya leksychnykh odynyts‟ nimets‟komovnoho naukovo-tekhnichnoho tekstu z naftovoyi promyslovosti.” Naukovi pratsi. Seriya: Filolohiya. Movoznavstvo, 207: 102-104.
    9. Riba, Oksana. 2009. “Terminolohichna nasychenist‟ nimets‟kykh fakhovykh tekstiv z naftovoyi promyslovosti.” Visnyk ZhDU im. I. Franka. Filolohichni nauky, 47: 216–219.
    10. Salamakha, Mar‟yana. 2016. “Anhlomovna terminosystema okhorony dovkillya struktura, semantyka, prahmatyka.” PhD dys. L‟viv.
    11. Skorokhod‟ko, Eduard. 2006. Termin u naukovomu teksti (do stvorennya terminotsentrychnoyi teoriyi naukovoho dyskursu). Kyyiv.
    12. Turovs‟ka, Lyudmyla. 2007. “Terminolohichna leksyka na storinkakh periodychnykh vydan‟.” Ukrayins‟ka mova, 2: 33−41. 13. Tsytkyna, Faina. 1988. Termynolohyya y perevod (k osnovam sopostavytel‟noho termynovedenyya). L‟vov: Vyshcha shkola.

  22. Lynnyk Yuriy, Hryb Mariana. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Use of Semantic Search Engines in the Newspaper Discourse (Using the Example of the Semantic Search System DuckDuckGo). – P. 116-122.
    The article describes the study of the effectiveness of the use of semantic search systems in the newspaper discourse. The research was conducted on the example of the semantic search engine DuckDuckGo. The attention is paid to the notion of semantic search system, discourse, newspaper discourse and criteria for searching information on the Internet. The principles of extraction of linguistically marked results of semantic search engine DuckDuckGo are investigated. The evaluation of the received data was carried out in accordance with the received information to the criteria for the search of information, among which the relevance, pertinence, accuracy and completeness are distinguished. To carry out an analysis of the content of contemporary newspaper discourse, 5 actual directions were selected for the experiment. Three variations were selected in each of the directions, and thus, 15 different requests were examined. They are conventionally divided into single tokens, two-component tokens and multi-component tokens. For the effectiveness and objectivity of the study, the first 10 search results were analyzed for each query in the semantic search engine DuckDuckGo. The article describes in more detail the methodology of conducting the research, namely the formulation of the criteria for the search and evaluation of the conformity of information. The results of issuing of semantic search engine DuckDuckGo for each search query are evaluated. For ease of analysis of the obtained results, the criteria of relevance, pertinence and completeness were presented in percentage equivalents. Each search criterion for different query types is analyzed. The importance of the criterion of pertinency in the newspaper discourse is established. It is stated that with an increase in the length of the search query it is significantly increased. It was found that for the research of newspaper discourse the best option is to formulate a multicomponent query in the natural language. The effectiveness of using semantic search systems in the newspaper discourse is evaluated. The effectiveness of using the DuckDuckGo semantic search engine in the newspaper discourse is proved.
    Key words: semantic search engine, search system, search criteria, discourse, newspaper discourse.
    1. Hazetnyi dyskurs [Elektronnyi resurs]. – Rezhym dostupu : https://studfiles.net/preview/5484809/page:30/
    2. Dobrosklonskaia, T. G. 2005. Voprosy Izucheniia Mediatekstov. Opyt Issledovaniia Sovremennoi Angliyskoi Mediarechi.  Moskva: URSS Editorial.
    3. Povnota Informatsii – tse shcho Oznachaie? [Elektronnyi resurs]. – Rezhym dostupu : http://yrok.pp.ua/serednyaosvta/883-povnota-nformacyi-ce-scho-oznachaye.html
    4. Slovar po Kibernetike. 1989. Kiyev : Glav. red. Ukr. Sovet. Entsikl. im. M. P. Bazhana.
    5. Sobolieva, I. O. 2002. Znyzheni (pozaliteraturni) Movni Zasoby v Suchasnomu Publitsystychnomu Dyskursi. Simferopol.
    6. Tlumachnyi Slovnyk z Intelektualnoi Vlasnosti. Osnovni Terminy: Ponad 2000 Terminiv. 1999. Kharkiv.
    7. Yakisni i Kilkisni Kharakterystyky Informatsii [Elektronnyi resurs] – Rezhym dostupu : http://studopedia.com.ua/ 1_50298_vlastivosti-informatsii.html
    8. Guha, R. and McCool, R. and Miller, E. 2012. “Semantic Search”. In WWW2003.
    9. John, T. 2012. “What is Semantic Search?”. In Techulator.

  23. Lisinska Tetiana, Vrona Tetyana. Etymology and Functioning of Terms of the Tourism Sphere. – P. 122-126.
    From the second half of  the twentieth and beginning of the twenty-first century. tourism has become an integral part of society‟s life, one of the most profitable and dynamically progressing branches of the economy. For changes that took place in a society under the influence of tourism, it received the name of the socio-cultural phenomenon of the twentieth century. The emergence of tourism in leadership positions in the economy and society attracted the attention of many specialists from different fields of knowledge. Over recent years, tourism has undergone some of the greatest development, employing thousands of people, as well as the most up-to-date technologies and means of communication. The spread of tourism all over the world has encouraged the use of English in foreign countries where, due to historical, cultural and economic factors, it actually acts as a lingua franca. This great diffusion of the English language has affected the other languages, which have started borrowing a dhuge number of terms from it. For instance, words such as camping, check-in and booking, all inclusive, shop-tour, diving are commonly used in a number of languages, including Ukrainian. One of the most demanded spheres of communication is tourism. The given article outlines the main aspects of study of the English tourism terminology, in particular, the functional one. It also covers etymology of the terms “tourism” and “tourist” in historical retrospective. Tourism terminological field branch organization and its relative division into five micro fields, which are typical for tourism sphere, are being researched in the given article.
    Key words: tourism, terms, terminology, terminological knowledge, linguistics.
    1. Ahafonova, L. H. 2002. Turyzm, hotel‟nyy ta restorannyy biznes: tsinoutvorennya, konkurentsiya, derzhavne rehulyuvannya. Kyyiv: Znannya Ukrayiny.
    2. Akhmanova, O. S. 2007. Slovar‟ lynhvystycheskykh termynov. Yzd. 4-e, stereotypnoe. Moskva: Kom-Knyha.
    3. Vynokur, H. O. 1939. “O nekotorykh yavlenyyakh slovoobrazovanyya v russkoy tekhnycheskoy termynolohyy”. Trudy Mosk. yn-ta ystoryy, fylosofyy y lyteratury : sbornyk statey po yazykovedenyyu. Moskva, 5:3–54.
    4. Kubryakova, E. S. 1974. Osnovy morfolohycheskoho analyza. Moskva: Nauka.
    5. Selivanova, O. O. 1999. Aktual‟ni napryamy suchasnoyi linhvistyky (analitychnyy ohlyad). Kyyiv Fitosotsiotsentr.

  24. Makaruk Larysa. Written Communication Within the Field of Linguistic Anthropology. – P. 127-138.
     This article is devoted to the evolution of writing. Attention is given to reasons behind the emergence of writing systems, and issues connected with their formation and development. Differential signs of oral and written speech are substantiated, taking into account a number of factors. Present-day patterns of communication are described. It has been determined that modern communicants are inclined to use various images and other non-alphabetical graphical means when communicating with one another. This suggests that for some reason, we are returning to a figure-based pattern of communication to some extent. The focus is on two forms of written communication − handwritten and printed. A number of assertions made by researchers in the last century about the differences between oral and written communication have been cited, in consideration of the new options for disseminating information which have appeared in the digital age. An overview is given of the range of semiotic resources that are available to modern communicants, and the differences between oral and written communication are well documented, taking into account the latest forms and methods of communication. Some parallels have been drawn between oral and written speech, taking into account the specific features of the two forms, and their advantages, disadvantages and possibilities are enumerated. Attention is focused on the potential of written means of interaction, their modifications and communicative and pragmatic orientation. It is emphasized that the expressive options used by modern communicators in the process of interacting significantly expanded thanks to the development of paraverbal elements. Thesemodifications are reflected not only in terms of expression, but also on the level of content. The paper also focuses on several groups of semiotic resources: segmentation; fonts and colors; non-pictorial and nonphotographic graphic elements; iconic elements; infographics; and other graphic effects. Their components are highlighted, and their potential opportunities and importance in interactive processes are partially outlined. A number of topical issues are raised that require solutions and comprehensive analysis by linguists. Attention is given to innovative trends which have given rise to a number of problems in the field of multimodal literacy and which lie outside the established norms of communication, but which may themselves be in the process of becoming norms.
    Key words:  writing, oral speech, written speech, printed form of speech, handwritten language, paraverbal means, nonverbal means.
    1. Amirova, T. A. 1985. Funktsionalnaia Vzaimosviaz Pismennogo i Zvukovogo Yazyka. Moskva: Nauka.
    2. Vakhek, I. 1967. “Pismennyi i Pechatnyi Yazyk.” In Prazhskiy lingvisticheskiy kruzhok. Moskva, 535–543.
    3. Volkov, A. A. 1982. Grammatologiya. Semiotika Pismennoy Rechi. Moskva: Izd-vo Mosk. un-ta.
    4. Gelb, Ignatsiy. 2004. Opyt Izucheniia Pisma. Osnovy grammatologii. Moskva: Editorial, URSS.
    5. Zinder, R. L. 1987. Ocherk Obshchei Teorii Pisma. Leningrad: Nauka.
    6. Nikolayeva, T. M. 1961. “Pismennaia Rech i Spetsyfika yee Izucheniya.” In Vopr. Yazykoznaniya, 3: 78–86.
    7. Sossiur, Ferdinand de. 1998. Kurs Zahalnoi Lnhvistyky. Kyiv: Osnovy.
    8. Sytdykova, Iryna. 2002. “Problema Pysma u Suchasnii Linhvistytsi.” In Problemy semantyky slova, rechennia ta tekstu. Kyiv: Vyd. tsentr KNLU, 8: 305–309.

  25. Pavlіuk Alla, Rogach Oksana, Garciіeva Diana. Complimentary Expressions with Positive Assessment of Men and Women in the Period of the Victorian Era (Based on Jane Austin’s Novel “Pride and Prejudice”). – P. 133-137.
    The article deals with the polivectoral analysis of complimentary speech acts that contain a positive evaluation and are used by a speaker to create a certain emotional state of the addressee and evoke his positive feelings. Due to their discourse character, expressions with complimentary components attract attention of many scholars but not all of them describe compliments as subtypes of structural semantic units. It is caused by semantic and communicative pragmatic peculiarities of compliments. Compliments may be based on the evaluation of a person‟s character traits, his appearance, clothes, moral qualities, skills and abilities and others. A list of potential objects for praises and compliments is rather big but only some of them are very frequent used in the complimentary expressions. A complimentary speech act is usually connected with two interlocutors – a man and a woman. In the speech of a male, compliments are usually focused on the character of the speech addressee. These speech acts appear as a result of various verbal activities because individual peculiar features of interlocutors are realized in such processes.   In their communication women very often use complimentary speech acts but males, in comparison with women, pay compliments less often. The most numerous complimentary speech acts are the ones that are based on the traits of character of the interlocutors. Women consider that other important features for the compliments are appearance, place of living, and mental and physical abilities. Men think that abilities of their interlocutors are more important in comparison with appearance, while home, a place of living as objects for compliments do not belong to the structure of masculine complimentary speech acts.  Texts written at the time of Queen Victoria‟s reign (1837–1902) are of special interests for linguists as at that time compliments were hidden, unlike their free usage in modern speech. The objects of compliments in Jane Austin‟s novel “Pride and Prejudice” are of 4 categories – appearance, character, skills and home.
    Key words: compliment, speech act, gender, object of a compliment, Jane Austin‟s novel “Pride and Prejudice”.
    1. Kyselova, N. M. 2012. “Leksychni i Stylistychni Osoblyvosti Komplimentu v Anhliiskii Movi”. In Perekladatski innovatsii : materialy II Vseukrainskoi studentskoi naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii. Sumy: SumDU, 74–76.
    2. Kolodko, M. K. 2012. “Kompliment i Pokhvala v Suchasnii Linhvoprahmatytsi”. In Naukovyi chasopys Natsionalnoho pedahohichnoho universytetu imeni M. P. Drahomanova. Seriia 9: Suchasni tendentsii rozvytku mov, 8: 93–99.
    3. Mishchenko, V. Ya. 2000. Kompliment v Movlennievii Povedintsi Predstavnykiv Anhlomovnykh (Brytanskoi ta Amerykanskoi) Kultur. Kharkiv.
    4. Osnovy Psykholohii. 2003. [Elektronnyi resur]. – Rezhym dostupu : [http://pidruchniki.com/1584072037301/ psihologiya/osnovi_psihologiyi]
    5. Prykhodko, H. I. 2014. “Osoblyvosti Stratehii Movlennievoi Komunikatsii Cholovikiv i Zhinok”. In Naukovyi visnyk Drohobytskoho derzhavnoho pedahohichnoho universytetu imeni Ivana Franka. Ser. : Filolohichni nauky (movoznavstvo), 2: 109–111.
    6. Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice [Electronic resource] / Jane Austen. – CUP Archive, 1950. – Access mode : https://books.google.com.ua/books/about/Pride_and_Prejudice.html?id=_gAVMQAACAAJ&redir_esc=y

  26. Peredon Nataliia. The Tactics of Implicit Actualization of Consent Used by the Interlocutor who is the Object of Reconciliation within the Cooperation Strategy. – P. 137-143.
    The focus of the article is to explore the nature of the tactics of implicit actualization of consent used by the interlocutor who has suffered from the conflict and is the object of reconciliation.  It has been determined that since the analyzed tactics are used to demonstrate a positive attitude to the initiator of reconciliation and declare the intention to resolve the conflict they implement the cooperative communication strategy. Having analyzed the fragments which represent the communicative situation of reconciliation in informal fiction discourse, the author has come to the conclusion that these tactics are aimed at minimizing the harm caused by the maleficent deed of the initiator of reconciliation, giving him moral support, as well as demonstrating willingness to restore harmonious relations. It has been determined that in the speech of the object of reconciliation the implicit consent to resolve the conflict can be declared by using the tactics of denying the initiator‟s guilt, admitting self-guilt, changing the assessment of the initiator‟s deed that has caused conflict, shifting the emphasis, generalization, demonstrating understanding of the reasons for the maleficent deed, cheering up and offering to forget the conflict. Using these tactics the object of reconciliation completely or partially denies the initiator‟s responsibility for the conflict, recognizes his own guilt in causing this conflict, emphasizes the positive effect caused by the maleficent deed of the initiator of reconciliation and manifests that the conflict situation is unable to affect the further harmonious relations negatively.
    Key words and phrases: tactics of implicit actualization of consent, cooperation strategy, initiator of reconciliation, object of reconciliation.
    1. Batsevych, Florii. 2004. Osnovy Komunikatyvnoi Lingvistyky. Kyiv: Akademiia.
    2. Biriukova, Liudmila. 2001. “Modelirovaniie kak Mehanizm Sozdaniia Podteksta”. Studia Linguistica. Problemy Teorii Yevropeiskih Yazykov, 304–309. Sankt-Peterburg: Trigon.
    3. Voitsehivska, Nataliia. 2009. “Katehoriia Zhody v Ukrainskomu Literaturnomu Dialohichnomu Dyskursi (na Materiali Hudozhnioi Literatury 20 – Pochatku 21 Stolit)”. PhD Abstract, Natsionalna Akademiia Nauk Ukrainy, Instytut Movoznavstva imeni O. O. Potebni.
    4. Trofimova, Nella. 2008. Ekspressivnyie Rechevyie Akty v Dialogicheskom Diskurse. Semanticheskii, Pragmaticheskii, Grammaticheskii Analiz. Sankt-Peterburg: VMM.
    5. Shumiatska, Oleksandra. 2016. “Movlennievyi Zhanr Vybachennia u Suchasnii Nimetskii Movi”. PhD Diss.,  Lvivskyi  Natsionalnyi Universytet Imeni Ivana Franka.
    6. Cookson, Catherine. 1996. The Obsession. London : Corgi Books.
    7. Itto, Dominic. 2010. The Congressman‟s Mistress. Morrisville : Lulu.com.
    8. Marlowe, Deb. 2012. Unbuttoning Miss Hardwick. Toronto : Harlequin.
    9. McDonald, Mark. 2009. The Song of the Mockingbird. Bloomington : iUniverse.
    10. Montefiore, Santa. 2014. The Beekeeper‟s Daughter. New York : Simon and Schuster.
    11. Overstreet, Renea. 2004. Always a Bridesmaid. Bloomington : iUniverse.
    12. Rabb, Mia. 2013. Web of Deception. Bloomington : Xlibris Corporation.
    13. Scanlan, Patricia. City Lives. London : Bantam Books.
    14. Wallace, Amy. 2012. Hiding in Plain Sight. Eugene : Harvest House Publishers.

  27. Rohach Oksana. Types of Proverbs and Sayings and Principles of their Classification. – P. 143-148.
    The article is devoted to the multidimensional analysis of the idiomatic corpus of a language with the consideration of the structural, semantic and linguocultural aspects. A special attention has been paid to the fact that proverbs and sayings reflect a life style, geographical location, history and tradition of a nation that is a bearer of a certain culture.  A language idiomatic corpus represents a system of values, social morale, worldview, self-understanding of a nation and its perception of other people and nationalities. National values, traditions and norms of behaviour are encoded in the idiomatic funds of national languages and their decoding and comprehension are of a paramount importance for a successful cross-cultural communication in the modern globalized world which requires profound background knowledge of the participants of communicative processes. As to the distinctive features of phraseological units, scholars point out national and cultural peculiarities that are defined by the following factors: the objective one which is expressed in the natural and cultural realia of a nation, and the subjective that includes the choice of language means in various languages to express the same phenomena and realia. Cultural specificity is caused by the elements of the material or spiritual culture of a society, its history, traditions, and natural geographical peculiarities.  In the linguistic sphere there are several principles of the classification of proverbs and sayings. They can be based on the key words (lexical or encyclopedic), alphabet, thematic group, place and time of the compilation of the dictionary of proverbs, genetic feature (the origin of a language and nation). An alphabetic classification prevails in the majority of English and Ukrainian dictionaries of proverbs but the alphabetic principle of classification causes the variants of one and the same proverb to be placed in different places. At the same time the conducted analysis has shown that a thematic classification of proverbs is the most popular one as it proves the relevance of language units to various aspects of human activities in the most accurate way.   On the basis of another feature of proverbs – their translatability – proverbs and phraseological units were divided into three groups: the ones that have equivalents in other languages, can be translated descriptively or accompanied by additional historical cultural comments and explanations.
    Key words and phrases:  idiomatic corpus of a language, proverbs and sayings, classification, national culture.
    1. Alefirenko, N. F. 2010. Lingvokulturologiia: Tsennostno-Smyslovoie Prostranstvo Yazyka. Moskva: Flinta; Nauka.
    2. Alefirenko, M. F. 1987. Teoretychni Pytannia Frazeolohii. Kharkiv: Vyd-vo pry Khark. derzh. un-ti vyd. obiednannia “Vyshcha shk”.
    3. Gak, V. G. 1984. “Opyt Obiasneniia Nekotorykh Semanticheskikh Mekhanizmov Poslovitsy.” In Paremiologicheskiye issledovaniya. Moskva, 149–177.
    4. Anhlo-ukrainskyi frazeolohichnyi slovnyk : blyzko 30 000 frazeolohichnykh vyraziv. 2005. Kyiv: Znannia.
    5. Anhlo-Ukrainski Slovnyky [Elektronnyi resurs]. Rezhym dostupu : http://e2u.org.ua
    6. Halytsko-Ruski Prypovidky : u 3-kh t. 2006. Lviv: Vyd. tsentr LNU im. Ivana Franka. Rezhym dostupu : http://elib.nplu.org/collection.html?id=240
    7. Dubenko, O. Yu. 2004. Anhlo-Amerykanski Pryslivia ta Prykazky. Vinnytsia. Rezhym dostupu : https://books. google.com.ua/ books?id=_jPQCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA407&lpg =PA407&dq #v=onepage&q&f=false
    8. Etymolohichnyi Slovnyk Ukrainskoi Movy. 1982–1989. Kyiv: Nauk. dumka. [Elektronnyi resurs]. Rezhym dostupu : http://litopys.org.ua/djvu/etymolog_slovnyk.htm
    9. Ukrainski Pryslivia, Prykazky i Take Inshe.1993. Kyiv: Lybid.
    10. Dictionary of English Phrases. 1922. London : George Routledge & Sons, Ltd ; New York: E. P. Dutton & Co.
    11. Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs. 2015.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  28. Rosenhart Yulia. Linguistic Profile of the Lying Politician. – P. 149-154.
    The article attempts to define a linguistic profile of Donald Trump through his use of deceptive language on the basis of studying general linguistic and cognitive aspects of deception in the U.S. political discourse. The speaker‟s manipulative impact is discussed within the framework of analyzing his three speeches made in 2017. One of the most well-known tools for assessing deception is Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count – LIWC (Pennebaker et al. 2010). This computerized method is particularly useful in studying implicit tendencies of the speaker‟s discourse. Based on the previous research, the author focuses on the positive correlation between the use of function words, such as pronouns and deictic expressions, exclusive words, verbs of “motion” with the degree of probability of providing false information. The current study found that among linguistic units – possible predictors of deception were low cognitive complexity indices marked by decreased number of prepositions, long words, lower mean sentence length.
    Key words: political discourse, linguistic profile, deceiver, markers of deception, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. 
    1. Zasiekin, S., Kolesnikova, I. 2016. “In search of translation universals”. Psykholinhvistyka, 19 (1)/(2): 36–46.
    2. Kalishchuk, D. 2016. “Konceptualni styli anglomovnykh politykiv (nf materiali politychnoho dyskursu G. Bush, Jr., B. Obama)”. Summary of Ph.D. dissertation. Zaporizhzha.
    3. Кarasik, V. 2004. Yazykovoy Krug: Lichnost, Kontsepty, Diskurs. Moscow: Gnozis.
    4. Shevchenko, I. S. 2017. “Kontseptualsatsiya kommunikativnoho povedeniya v diskurse”. In Kak Narisovat‟ Portret Ptitsy. Monograph. I. Shevchenko, Ed, 106–147. Kharkiv. Vasyl Karazin National University of Kharkiv..
    5. Sheygal, Ye. I. 2000. Semiotika politicheskogo diskursa. Volgograd : Peremena.
    6. Yanovets, A. I. “Psykholinhvistychni osoblyvosti  dyskursu anhlomovnoho polityka u stani emotsiinoyi napruhy”. Summary of Ph.D. dissertation. Kherson.
    7. Dobzhanska-Knight, N., Voitko, K. 2017. Linguistic manipulative techniques in advertising slogans of fast food restaurants. East European Journal of Psycholinguistics, 4(2): 14–22.
    8. Dijk, T. van. 2008. Discourse and Power. N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan.
    9. Duran, N. D., Hall, C., McCarthy, P. M., & McNamara, D. 2010. The linguistic correlates of conversational deception: Comparing natural language processing technologies. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31: 439–462.
    10. Grice H. P. 1991. Logic and Conversation. Studies in the Way of Words, 22–40. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press.
    11. McCarthy, P. M., Duran, N. D., & Booker, L. M. 2012. The Devil is in the Details: New Directions in Deception Analysis. In P. M. McCarthy & M. Youngblood (Eds.). Proceedings of the 25th International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference. Menlo Park, CA: The AAAI Press.
    12. Newman, M. L. Pennebaker, J. W., Berry, D. S., & Richards, J. M. 2003. Lying words: Predicting deception from linguistic style. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29: 665–675.
    13. Shapiro, D. 1996. On the psychology of self-deception. Social Research, 63(3): 785–800.
    14. Tausczik, Y. R. 2010. “The Psychological Meaning of Words: LIWC and Computerized Text Analysis Methods”. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 29 (1): 24–54.
    15. Remarks by President Trump on Tax Reform. Retrieved from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefingsstatements/remarks-president-trump-tax-reform-springfield-mo/
    16. Statement by President Trump on the Paris Climate Accord. Retrieved from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/ briefings-statements/statement-president-trump-paris-climate-accord/
    17. Remarks by President Trump to the 72nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-72nd-session-united-nations-generalassembly

  29. Semeniuk Tetiana. Linguocultural and Ethnospecific Values of German Society by Means of Cognitive Semantic Analysis of Commercial Advertising. – P. 154-160.
    The article is devoted to the identification of linguocultural and ethnospecific values of German lingual society. The outline of the conceptual values has been carried out with the help of cognitive semantic analysis of commercial advertising texts, which are integral parts of today‟s communication. The concepts of “lingual world picture” and “conceptual world picture” have been analyzed and their differentiation has been carried out in the article. Conceptual values form the conceptual world picture, which affects the linguocultural and ethnospecific peculiarities of each nation. The content of the term “concept” has been outlined in the research paper, direct and non-direct verbalizers of the concepts, which form their nominative fields, have been pointed out. Texts of commercial advertising are divided into four groups: “Food and Beverages”, “Dishes and Appliances”, “Cosmetics and Perfumery”, “Vehicles”. Cognitive semantic analysis of advertising texts enabled the determination of conceptual values of German society. The key conceptual elements of commercial advertising have been defined and the conceptual field of commercial advertising has been formed in the article. It has been established that in certain groups of goods the same concepts are repeated. Concepts, which are duplicated in the investigated groups of advertising texts, belong to key linguocultural and ethnospecific mental entities of German speech community.
    Key words: text, advertising text, concept, linguocultural and ethnospecific values, cognitive semantic analysis.
    1. Vapіrov, Serhij. 2002. “Aspekti vivchennja nacіonal‟noї mental‟nostі v movnіj sistemі ta hudozhn‟omu diskursі ”Nova fіlologіja. 2 (11): 5–11. Zaporіzhzhja : ZDU.
    2. Gavrish,  Myhailo. 2017. “Etnocіnnostі u movnih kartinah svіtu (nіmec‟ko-ukraїns‟kі movnі paralelі)” Naukovі zapiski. 153: 420–424. Kropivnic‟kij: Vidavec‟ Lisenko V. F.
    3. Karaulov, Jurij. 1987. Russkij jazyk i jazykovaja lichnost‟ . Moskva: Nauka.
    4. Kubrjakova, Elena. 2004. Jazyk i znanie: na puti poluchenija znanij o jayke: chasti rechi s kognitivnoj tochki zrenija. Rol‟ jazyka v poznanii mira.  Moskva: Jazyki slavjanskoj kul‟tury.
    5. Popova, Zinaida, Sternin, Iosif. 2007. Kognitivnaja lingvistika. Moskva: ACT: Vostok–Zapad.
    6. Prihod‟ko, Anatolij. 2008. Koncepti і konceptosistemi v kognіtivno-diskursivnіj paradigmі lіngvіstiki: monografіja. Zaporіzhzhja.
    7. Prohorova, Polina. 2014. Antropocentripetal‟nі koncepti jak domіnanti nіmec‟komovnoї kartini svіtu: monografіja. Melіtopol‟: Kolor Print.
    8. Tokarev, Gennadij. 2003. Diskursivnye liki koncepta: monografіja. Tula.
    9. Brigitte. 2016. №11. 128 S.
    10. Freundin. 2016. № 23. 208 S.
    11. Freundin. 2016. № 23. 208 S.
    12. Google Bilder [Electronic Ressource]. – Access mode:  https://www.google.com/imghp?hl=de
    13. Nuss,  Bernd. 1992. Das Faust Syndrom. Ein Versuch über die Mentalität der Deutschen. Bonn, Berlin: Borvier.
    14. Potter, David. 1954. People of Plenty. Economic Abundance and the American Character. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

  30. Skobnikova Oksana. Psycholinguistic Analysis of the Concept “FAMILY”. – P. 161-165.
    This article is devoted to the study of the structure and content of the concept “FAMILY” through the construction of its associative field with the help of an associative experiment as a leading psycholinguistic method. The article defines the basic thesis and describes the methodology of the conducted research. Associative experiment is aimed at studying verbal representatives of the content of consciousness and allows us to identify the reality, specifically reflected in the submission of the individual. On the basis of the data of the associative experiment, it is possible to construct an associative-semantic network of the carrier of a particular culture. The associative field is defined as a set of associative responds on a word-stimulus. The structure of the associative field of the concept “FAMILY” is considered as containing the core and peripheral zone. It is proved that the reactions with the highest frequency index form the core of the associative field, while the associatives, given by some or some participants in the experiment, form its peripheral zone. Among the existing types of the associative experiment, a free associative experiment was chosen for this study. According to the experiments, the associative stimulus field of the family was formed. The key words representing the core of the concept “FAMILY” and forming the periphery of the concept were selected. For a more detailed understanding of the concept, the data was arranged according to the frequency of associations and theme. It was noted that among the lexemes used to describe the concept “FAMILY”, nouns predominate in terms of the attitude towards the family and its members, and also the adjectives are available for the indication of family members and place of residence. It was proved that among the resulting associations reactions with positive and neutral connotations predominate, while the number of reactions with negative connotation is negligible. As a possible perspective of further research, the construction of the associative field of the concept “FAMILY” on the material of thesauri presented in modern English explanatory dictionaries was proposed.
    Key words:  concept, psycholinguisticanalysis, associativefield, associative experiment.
    1. Bolshaia psykholohycheskaia entsyklopedyia. 2007. Moscow: Eksmo.
    2. Vorkachev, S. H. 2005. “Postulaty lynhvokontseptolohyy.”Antolohyiakontseptov.Edited by.V. Y. Karasyk and Y. A. Sternyn. Volgograd: Paradyhma. – Vol. 1.
    3. Karpenko, O. U. 2006. “Kohnityvnaonomastyka yak napriamok piznannia vlasnykh nazv.” Phd. diss.
    4. Levytskyi, V. V. 2006. Semasyolohyia. Vynnytsa: Nova knyha.
    5. Leontev, A. A. 1997. Osnovy psykholynhvystyky. Moscow: Smysl.
    6. Liubymov, U. V. 1977. Pryroda assotsyatsyy; struktura slovesnoi pamiaty y poniatye assotsyatyvnoho znachenyia. In Slovarassotsyatyvnykh norm russkohoyazyka. Moscow: Publishing house of Moscow University.
    7. Pyshchalnykova, V. A. 2007. “Znachenyei kontsept”. Vestnyk MHLU. 210–222.
    8. Popova, Z. D. and Y. A Sternyn. 2001. “Interpretatsyonnoe pole natsyonalnoho kontsepta i metody eho izuchenyia.” Kultura obshchenyia y ee formyrovanye. Voronezh. Vol. 8.
    9. Slyshkyn, H. H. 2001. “Kontseptolohycheskyi analyz ynstytutsyonalnoho dyskursa.”Fylolohyiaikultura. Paper presented at III International conference, Tambov.
    10. Rosh, E.H. 1978. “Principles of Categorization.”Cognition and Categorization. Hillsdale, New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  31. Surmach Olga. Psycholinguistic Interpretation of the Results of the Associative Experiment: a Case Study of the Word-stimulate “MONEY” in the English Language. – P. 165-171.
     In this article we review the associative experiment and analyze cognitive-psycholinguistic interpretation of the received material. The associative field of the word is the whole range of the received words on the stimulating word. Positive and negative connotations of certain areas of the associative field are essential key figures of the concept‟s national specific features.
    Key words:  associative experiment, concept, cognitive linguistics, linguistics, reaction, stimulating word.
    1. Sternin, I. A. 2001. “Metodika issledovanija struktury kontzepta”. Metodologicheskije problemy kognitivnoj lingvistiki, 58–65. Voronezh: Izdatelstvo Voronezhskogo universiteta.
    2. Leontjev, A. A. 1969. Jazyk, rech, rechevaja dejatelnost. Moskva: Enlightment.
    3. Rudakova A. V. 2003. “Objectivizatzyja konzepta “byt” v leksikologicheskoj I idiomaticheskoi systemax rysskogo jazyka” PhD diss. Voronezh.
    4. Cambridge International Dictionary of English, 1996. Ed. by Paul Procter. Cambridge University Press.
    5. Wesley, Adisson. 1997. Longman Language Activator. Longman Group UK Limited.
    6. Thomas, B. J. 1991. Advanced Vocabulary and Idiom. Nelson House.
    7. McArthur, Tom. 1990. Longman Lexicon of Contemporary English. Longman.
    8. Macmillian English Dictionary for Advanced Learners, editor-in-chief Michael Rundell. 2002. Macmillan Publishers Limited.
    9. O‟Driscoll, James.1997. Britain. The country and its people: an introduction for learners of English. England: Oxford University press.
    10. Partridge, E. 1978. A dictionary of clichés. Routledge&Kegan Paul London, Doston and Henley.
    11. Fergusson, R. 2000. The Penguin Dictionary of Proverb. Market House books Ltd.

  32. Chornii Raisa. Decoding Key of the Title and Decorative Design in the Novel “The Help” of Kathryn Stockett. – P. 171-176.
    The article deals with the characteristics of functioning of some elements of compositional privileged/strong positions of the text and their role in representing the specific features of the disclosure of the artist‟s conception of the text. The important prerequisite for the complete perception of the text is taking into consideration the peculiarities of the title and decorative design of the printed paper back and the appearance of the title page (front matter) of the printbook layout. The characteristics of the title complex as the tools for writer‟s intention realization in consideration of toleration to differences of opinion, beliefs, some ethnic stereotypes and racism hangovers in particular are analyzed on the sample of the novel “The Help” written by the American writer Kathryn Stockett. The plot creating function of the title is analyzed in this article, the following structural and semantic characteristics of the title of the book, its connection with the context of the fiction, its role in the plot developing and time and space continuum are highlighted in particular. The principle element enriching the artist‟s creation is its semantic peculiarity that plays the integral and concrete meanings. So at the beginning of the text the title is perceived by a reader as the text proprietary name represents the nominative, informative and prognostic functions, and after finishing reading the meaning of the title enriches in additional denotation. Visual contact with the book is one of the focal points in immediate connection with readers to represent a certain degree of interest and may provoke either positive or negative effect, willingness or refusal to continue further communication. Text information hidden in the illustration assists to show the main idea of the fiction, the pragmatics of writer‟s intent. The degree of coherence of cover illustration, the title of the book and the original is defined on the base of Kethryn Stockett‟s novel “The Help”. The difference between the decorative design of the book covers for the debut novel publications in the USA and Great Britain is characterized and the reasons of such choices are grounded.
    Key words: title complex, decorative design, cover of the book, perception, visual contact, time, space, text information.
    1. Arnold, Irina. 1978. “Znacheniie silnoi pozitsii dlia interpretatsii khudozhestvennogo teksta”. Inostrannyie yazyki v shkole, 4:23-24.
    2. Volkova, Tatiana. 1991. Problema zhanra v sovremennoi poezii. Na materiale sovremennoi ruskoi i ukrainskoi poezii. Lvov: Svit.
    3. Vygotskii, Lev. 1968. Psihologiia iskusstva. Moskva: Iskusstvo 4. Hromiak, Roman. 1997. Davnie i suchasne. Ternopil: LILEIA.
    5. Izer, Wolfgang. 1996. “Protses chytannia: phenomenolohichne nablyzhennia”. Slovo. Znak. Dyskurs. Antolohiia svitovoi literaturno-krytychnoi dumky XX st., za redaktsii M. Zubrytska, 263–276. Lviv: Litopys:.
    6. Koknova, Tetiana. 2015.“Literaturni pryiomy stvorennia afroamerykanskykh obraziv na materiali romanu K. Stockett “Prysluha””. Naulovyi visnyk Mizhnarodnoho humanitarnoho universytetu. Philolohiia, 15 (2): 67-69. http://www.vestnik-philology.mgu.od.ua/archive/v15/part_2/22.pdf
    7. Koshevaiia, Inna. 1992. “Nazvanie kak koordinirovannaia ideia teksta”. Innostrannyie yazyki v shkole, 3:66-79.
    8. Tiupa, Valerii. 2000. “Proizvedeniie i ego imia”. Literaturnyi tekst: Problemy I ego metody issledovaniia. Moskva; Tver. (VI): 9-18. https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=21464887
    9. Chepelieva, Nataliia, and Yakovenko, Liudmyla. P. 2011. “Vplyv smyslovoi structury tekstu nay oho rozuminnia chytachem” Aktualni problemy psykholohii, 7 (II): 79-89. http://www.appsychology.org.ua/data/jrn/v2/i7/9.pdf
    10. Calkin, Jessamy. 2009. The maid‟s tale: Kathryn Stockett examines slavery and racism in America‟s Deep South. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/5844739/The-maids-tale-KathrynStockett-examines-slavery-and-racism-in-Americas-Deep-South.html
    11. Jones, Suzanne. 2014. The Divided Reception of The Help. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/536961/pdf
    12. Kathryn Stockett. Access mode: http://www.famousauthors.org/kathryn-stockett
    13. McHaney, Pearl. 2014. Kathryn Stockett‟s Postmodern First Novel (20), 1: 77-92. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/ 536966
    14. Stockett, Kathryn. 2009. The Help. Access mode: http://www.scollingsworthenglish.com/uploads/ 3/8/4/2/38422447/the_help_-_kathryn_stockett.pdf
    15. Williamson Jennifer. 2014. Twentieth-Century Sentimentalism: Narrative Appropriation in American Literature. https://books.google.com.ua/books?id=3xNKAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT220&lpg=PT220&dq=Jennifer+A.+Williamson+A+ke thryn+stockett&source=bl&ots=kieMdt1gfw&sig=4I7VmmyKm55l6rVpj_7UCQ_FS2M&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjygL_g74DYAhXJ1qQKHX1BDbQQ6AEITzAL#v=onepage&q=Jennifer%20A.%20Williamson%20A%20kethryn%20s tockett&f=false

  33. Відомості про авторів.


  1. Boichuk V. Pragmatic Features of Pessimistic Utterances / V.Boichuk  // Current Issues of Foreign Philology. – 2017. – № 7. – C. 5–11.
  2. Bondar T., Sklianchuk O. Verbalization of the Concept КАТАСТРОФА / CATASTROPHE in the Ukrainian and English Languages / T. Bondar, O. Sklianchuk  // Current Issues of Foreign Philology. – 2017. – № 7. – P. 11–15.
  3. Veremyova A. The Ideologeme of the Narratives of the “The Cycle of the Invisible” by E.-E. Schmitt on the Example of Narratives “Monsieur Ibrahim and the Flowers of the Koran”, “Oscar and the Lady in Pink”, “Noah’s Child”, “The Sumo Wrestler Who Could Not Gain Weight” / A. Veremyova // Current Issues of Foreign Philology. – 2017. – № 7. – Р. 16–22.
  4. 4. Vorobiova T., Smalko L.  Translator training: teaching creativity in translation creatively / T. Vorobiova , L. Smalko  // Current Issues of Foreign Philology. – 2017. – № 7.  – P. 22–29.
    5. Hedz S. Lexical, Semantic and Pragmatic Characteristics of Mixed Type Interrogative Sentences in Modern English / S. Hedz // Current Issues of Foreign Philology. – 2017. – № 7.  – P. 29–34.
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